Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is intended to determine the bend strength of FRP composite concrete reinforcements, developed at a standard twelve bar diameters of embedment. From this test, a variety of data are acquired that are needed for design purposes. Material-related factors that influence the tensile response of bars include the following: constituent materials, void content, volume percent reinforcement, methods of fabrication, and fiber reinforcement architecture. Similarly, factors relevant to the measured tensile response of bars include specimen preparation, specimen conditioning, environment of testing, specimen alignment, and speed of testing. The results may be used for material specifications, research and development, and structural design and analysis.
Note 1: Two FRP bends are tested simultaneously in this test method, but in some cases, only one bend may fail. While resulting in a valid failure, notice should be taken that only one bend has been effectively measured and that the final compiled test results using this method could differ from those resulting from single FRP bend testing.
1.1 This test method determines the quasi-static ultimate strength of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bent bars commonly used as anchorages for stirrups in reinforced, prestressed, or post-tensioned concrete structures. This test method only applies to bars with a solid cross section.
1.2 FRP bent bars are often used in reinforced concrete applications to shorten the development length of the bar or to act as a tie or a stirrup to resist shear forces. Bent bars can be produced with varying angles of bend in order to fit their intended purpose.
1.3 For this test method, the FRP bars are bent at a 90 degree angle. In general, bars have a regular pattern of surface undulations, a coating of bonded particles, or both, that promote mechanical interlock between the bar and concrete.
1.4 This test method may be completed on standardized bars, produced according to Specification . In this case, the nominal cross-sectional areas and effective diameters are taken from . This test method may also be used for bars that are not standardized. In this case, the cross-sectional areas and effective diameters should be measured and calculated as described in Test Method .
1.5 The strength values provided by this method are short-term, quasi-static tensile strengths that do not account for sustained static or cyclic loading. If bars are to be used under high levels of sustained or repeated loading, additional material characterization may be required.
1.6 The characteristic values obtained from this test method are intended to represent the quasi-static ultimate strength of FRP bent bars with a tail length of twelve bar diameters.
1.7 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined.
1.7.1 Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in brackets.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.