Standard Active Last Updated: May 20, 2022 Track Document
ASTM D7145-22

Standard Guide for Measurement of Atmospheric Wind and Turbulence Profiles by Acoustic Means

Standard Guide for Measurement of Atmospheric Wind and Turbulence Profiles by Acoustic Means D7145-22 ASTM|D7145-22|en-US Standard Guide for Measurement of Atmospheric Wind and Turbulence Profiles by Acoustic Means Standard new BOS Vol. 11.07 Committee D22
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Significance and Use

5.1 Sodars have found wide applications for the remote measurement of wind and turbulence profiles in the atmosphere, particularly in the gap between meteorological towers and the lower range gates of wind profiling radars. The sodar’s far field acoustic power is also used for refractive index calculations and to estimate atmospheric stability, heat flux, and mixed layer depth (1-5).3 Sodars are useful for these purposes because of strong interaction between sound waves and the atmosphere’s thermal and velocity micro-structure that produce acoustic returns with substantial signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The returned echoes are Doppler-shifted in frequency. This frequency shift, proportional to the radial velocity of the scattering surface, provides the basis for wind measurement. Advantages offered by sodar wind sounding technology include reasonably low procurement, operating, and maintenance costs, no emissions of eye-damaging light beams or electromagnetic radiation requiring frequency clearances, and adjustable frequencies and pulse lengths that can be used to optimize data quality at desired ranges and range resolutions. When properly sited and used with adequate sampling methods, sodars can provide continuous wind and turbulence profile information at height ranges from a few tens of meters to over a kilometer for typical averaging periods of 1 to 60 minutes.


1.1 This guide describes the application of acoustic remote sensing for measuring atmospheric wind and turbulence profiles. It includes a summary of the fundamentals of atmospheric sound detection and ranging (sodar), a description of the methodology and equipment used for sodar applications, factors to consider during site selection and equipment installation, and recommended procedures for acquiring valid and relevant data.

1.2 This guide applies principally to pulsed monostatic sodar techniques as applied to wind and turbulence measurement in the open atmosphere, although many of the definitions and principles are also applicable to bistatic configurations. This guide is not directly applicable to radio-acoustic sounding systems (RASS), or tomographic methods.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this guide.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 11.07
Developed by Subcommittee: D22.11
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.1520/D7145-22
ICS Code: 17.140.99