Significance and Use
4.1 The integrity test methods described are used to determine the integrity of membrane systems, and are applicable to systems containing membrane module configurations of both hollow fiber and flat sheet; such as, spiral-wound configuration. In all cases the practices apply to membranes in the RO, NF, and UF membrane classes. However, the TOC and Dye Test practices do not apply to membranes in the MF range or the upper end of the UF pore size range (0.01 μm and larger pore sizes) due to insignificant or inconsistent removal of TOC material by these membranes.
4.2 These methods may be used to identify relative changes in the integrity of a system, or used in conjunction with the equations described in , to provide a means of estimating the integrity in terms of log reduction value. For critical applications, estimated log reductions using these equations should be confirmed by experiment for the particular membrane and system configuration used.
4.3 The ability of the methods to detect any given defect is affected by the size of the system or portion of the system tested. Selecting smaller portions of the system to test will increase the sensitivity of the test to defects. When determining the size that can be tested as a discrete unit, use the guidelines supplied by the system manufacturer or the general guidelines provided in this practice.
4.4 The applicability of the tests is largely independent of system size when measured in terms of the impact of defects on the treated water quality (that is, the system LRV). This is because the bypass flow from any given defect is diluted in proportion to the systems total flowrate. For example, a 10-module system with a single defect will produce the same water quality as a 100-module system with ten of the same size defects.
1.1 This practice covers the determination of the integrity of water filtration membrane elements and systems using air based tests (pressure decay and vacuum hold), soluble dye, continuous monitoring particulate light scatter techniques, and TOC monitoring tests for the purpose of rejecting particles and microbes. The tests are applicable to systems with membranes that have a nominal pore size less than about 1 µm. The TOC, and Dye, tests are generally applicable to NF and RO class membranes only.
1.2 This practice does not purport to cover all available methods of integrity testing.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.