Significance and Use
5.1 The shear strength of a specimen depends on the method of shearing, soil type, vertical consolidation stress, time of consolidation, rate of strain, and prior stress history of the soil.
5.2 In this test, the shear strength is measured under constant volume conditions that are equivalent to undrained conditions for a saturated specimen; hence, the test is applicable to field conditions wherein soils have fully consolidated under one set of stresses, and then are subjected to changes in stress without time for further drainage to take place.
5.3 The constant volume (undrained) strength is a function of stress conditions. In this test method, the strength is measured under plane strain conditions and the principle stresses continuously rotate due to the application of shear stress. This simple shear stress condition occurs in many field situations including zones below a long embankment and around axially loaded piles.
5.4 The state of stress within the simple shear specimen is not sufficiently defined nor uniform enough to allow rigorous interpretation of the results. Expressing the data in terms of the shear stress and vertical effective stress on the horizontal plane is useful for engineering purposes, but should not be confused with the effective stress parameters derived from other shear tests having better defined states of stress.
5.5 The values of the secant shear modulus can be used to estimate the initial settlements of embankments built on saturated cohesive soils due to undrained shear deformations.
5.6 The data and the rate of consolidation from the consolidation portion of this test are comparable to results obtained using Test Methods provided that the more rigorous consolidation procedure of Test Methods is followed.
5.6.1 When using wire reinforced membranes the vertical displacements measured from Test Methods are somewhat smaller than for the direct simple shear test because the direct simple shear (DSS) specimen's lateral confinement is less rigid.
5.6.2 The estimated preconsolidation pressure is comparable provided the specimen is loaded sufficiently into the normally consolidated range.
1.1 This test method defines equipment specifications and testing procedures for the measurement of constant volume strength and stress-strain characteristics of cohesive soils after one-dimensional consolidation using a constant rate of simple shear deformation mode of loading. The constant volume condition is equivalent to the undrained condition for saturated specimens.
1.2 This test method is written specifically for devices that test rectangular parallelepiped or cylindrical specimens. Other more general devices, such as the torsional shear hollow cylinder, may be used to perform consolidated constant volume simple shear tests but are beyond the scope of this test method.
1.3 This test method is applicable to testing intact, laboratory reconstituted, and compacted soils, however, it does not include specific guidance for reconstituting or compacting test specimens.
1.4 It shall be the responsibility of the agency requesting this test to specify the magnitude of the vertical consolidation stress prior to constant volume shear and, when appropriate, the maximum vertical consolidation stress, which will result in an overconsolidated specimen.
1.5 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.
1.5.1 In the engineering profession it is customary practice to use, interchangeably, units representing both mass and force, unless dynamic calculations (F=Ma) are involved. This implicitly combines two separate systems of units, that is, the absolute system and the gravimetric system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine two separate systems within a single standard. This test method has been written using SI units; however, inch-pound conversions are given in the gravimetric system, where the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). The use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm), or the recording of density in lb/ft3 should not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method.
1.6 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice .
1.6.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated in this test standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this test standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.
1.6.2 Measurements made to more significant digits or better sensitivity than specified in this standard shall not be regarded a nonconformance with this standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.