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ASTM D5312/D5312M-21

Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Durability of Rock for Erosion Control Under Freezing and Thawing Conditions

Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Durability of Rock for Erosion Control Under Freezing and Thawing Conditions D5312_D5312M-21 ASTM|D5312_D5312M-21|en-US Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Durability of Rock for Erosion Control Under Freezing and Thawing Conditions Standard new BOS Vol. 04.08 Committee D18
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Significance and Use

5.1 Rock for erosion control consists of individual pieces of natural stone. The ability of these individual pieces of stone to resist deterioration due to weathering action affects the stability of the integral placement of rock for erosion control and hence, the stability of construction projects, structures, shorelines, and stream banks.

5.2 This test method is designed to determine the effects of freezing and thawing action on the individual pieces of rock for erosion control and the resistance of the rock to deterioration. This test method was developed to be used in conjunction with additional test methods listed in Practice D4992. This test method does not provide an absolute value but rather an indication of the resistance to freezing and thawing; therefore, the results of this test method are not to be used as the sole basis for the determination of rock durability.

Note 1: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent upon the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluation some of those factors.


1.1 This test method covers the procedures for evaluating the durability of rock for erosion control by evaluating the performance of slabs of rock when exposed to freezing and thawing conditions. This weathering test exposes the rock to freezing and thawing cycles similar to natural weather conditions. The rock slabs, prepared in accordance with procedures in Practice D5121, are intended to be representative of erosion control rock and its weaknesses. The test is appropriate for breakwater stone, armor stone, riprap, and gabion sized rock materials.

1.2 The limitations of the test are twofold.

1.2.1 First, the size of the cut rock slab specimens may eliminate some of the internal defects present in the rock structure. The test specimens may not be representative of the quality of the larger rock samples used in construction. Careful examination of the rock source and proper sampling are essential in minimizing this limitation.

1.2.2 Second, the test requires the rock slabs to be exposed to up to 55 freezing-thawing cycles. The test is time intensive and the entire procedure including sample preparation, testing, and analysis may require in excess of two months if automated freezing-thawing equipment is available and in excess of 5 months if the manual method is used. This limitation makes this test most useful as an initial source approval type test and may limit its practical usefulness as a more frequent quality control test during construction.

1.3 The use of reclaimed concrete and other such materials is beyond the scope of this test method.

1.4 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.4.1 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The slug unit is not given unless dynamic (F=ma) calculations are involved.

1.4.2 It is common practice in the engineering/construction profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and of force (lbf). This practice implicitly combines two separate systems of units; the absolute and the gravitational systems. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. As stated, this standard includes the gravitational system of inch-pound units and does not use/present the slug unit of mass. However, the use of balances and scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or recording density in lbm/ft 3 shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard.

1.5 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this test method.

1.5.1 For purposes of comparing measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.

1.5.2 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the user’s objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 04.08
Developed by Subcommittee: D18.17
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/D5312_D5312M-21
ICS Code: 93.020