Standard Historical Last Updated: Aug 22, 2016
ASTM D4751-12

Standard Test Method for Determining Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile

Significance and Use

Using a geotextile as a medium to retain soil particles necessitates compatibility between it and the adjacent soil. This test method is used to indicate the apparent opening size in a geotextile, which reflects the approximate largest opening dimension available for soil to pass through.

Test Method D4751 for the determination of opening size of geotextiles is acceptable for testing of commercial shipments of geotextiles. Current estimates of precision, between laboratories, are being established.

In case of a dispute arising from differences in reported test results when using Test Method D4751 for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, the purchaser and the supplier should conduct comparative tests to determine if there is a statistical bias between their laboratories. Competent statistical assistance is recommended for the investigation of bias. As a minimum, the two parties should take a group of test specimens that are homogeneous as possible and that are from a lot of material of the type in question. The test specimens should then be randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing. The average results from the two laboratories should be compared using Students t-test for unpaired data and an acceptable probability level chosen by the two parties before the testing is begun. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected or the purchaser and the supplier must agree to interpret future test results in the light of the known bias.

TABLE 1 Glass Bead Sizes

Bead Size Range
PassingRetainedBead Size DesignationA
mmSieve NumberBmmSieve NumberBmmSieve Number
0.180800.150100 0.150100
0.125120 0.106140 0.106140
0.090170 0.075200 0.075200

A The designated bead size is the retained on size of the sieve pair used to size the beads. For example, beads designated No. 40 are beads that pass the No. 35 sieve and are retained on the No. 40 sieve. These beads are typically sold as 35-40 beads.

B See Specification E11.


1.1 This test method covers the determination the apparent opening size (AOS) of a geotextile by sieving glass beads through a geotextile.

1.2 This test method shows the values in both SI units and inch-pound units. SI units is the technically correct name for the system of metric units known as the International System of Units. Inch-pound units is the technically correct name for the customary units used in the United States. The values in inch-pound units are provided for information only.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.

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Book of Standards Volume: 04.13
Developed by Subcommittee: D35.03
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.1520/D4751-12
ICS Code: 59.080.70