Significance and Use
2.1 This practice may be used in conjunction with other methods in determining the general condition of concrete bridge decks.
2.2 This practice may be used in determining specific areas of delamination requiring repair.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for surveying concrete bridge decks by sounding to determine delamination in the concrete. It is not intended that the procedures described herein are to be used on bridge decks that have been overlaid with asphalt mixtures. The procedures may be used on bridge decks that have been overlaid with portland cement concrete mixtures; however, areas indicated to be delaminated may have a lack of bond between the overlay and the underlying bridge deck ( ).
Note 1: The influence of variable field conditions such as traffic noise, vibration, moisture content of the concrete, and the like, are not completely known and additional investigation may be needed. It is generally agreed that the practice should not be used on frozen concrete.
1.2 The following three procedures are covered in this practice:
1.2.1 Procedure A, Electro-Mechanical Sounding Device—This procedure uses an electric-powered tapping device, sonic receiver, and recorder mounted on a cart. The cart is pushed across the bridge deck and the delamination is recorded on the recorder.
1.2.2 Procedure B, Chain Drag—This procedure consists of dragging a chain over the bridge deck surface. The detection of delamination is accomplished by the operator noting dull or hollow sounds. Tapping the bridge deck surface with a steel rod or hammer may be substituted for the chain drag.
1.2.3 Procedure C, Rotary Percussion—This procedure consists of rolling a dual-wheel, multi-toothed apparatus attached to an extension pole over the bridge deck surface. The percussive force caused by the tapping wheels will create either a dull or hollow sound, indicating any delamination.
1.3 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.4 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.
1.5 Since a complete Precision and Bias statement for this standard has not been developed, the standard practice is to be used for research and informational purposes only. Therefore, this standard should not be used for acceptance or rejection of a material for purchasing purposes.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.