Significance and Use
4.1 Samples of petroleum and petroleum products are obtained for many reasons, including the determination of chemical and physical properties. These properties may be used for: calculating standard volumes; establishing product value; and often safety and regulatory reporting.
4.2 There are inherent limitations when performing any type of sampling, any one of which may affect the representative nature of the sample. As examples, a spot sample provides a sample from only one particular point in the tank, vessel compartment, or pipeline. In the case of running or all-level samples, the sample only represents the column of material from which it was taken.
4.3 Based on the product, and testing to be performed, this practice provides guidance on sampling equipment, container preparation, and manual sampling procedures for petroleum and petroleum products of a liquid, semi-liquid, or solid state, from the storage tanks, flowlines, pipelines, marine vessels, process vessels, drums, cans, tubes, bags, kettles, and open discharge streams into the primary sample container.
1.1 This practice covers procedures and equipment for manually obtaining samples of liquid petroleum and petroleum products, crude oils, and intermediate products from the sample point into the primary container are described. Procedures are also included for the sampling of free water and other heavy components associated with petroleum and petroleum products.
1.2 This practice also addresses the sampling of semi-liquid or solid-state petroleum products.
1.3 This practice provides additional specific information about sample container selection, preparation, and sample handling.
1.4 This practice does not cover sampling of electrical insulating oils and hydraulic fluids. If sampling is for the precise determination of volatility, use Practice D5842 (API MPMS Chapter 8.4) in conjunction with this practice. For sample mixing and handling, refer to Practice D5854 (API MPMS Chapter 8.3).
1.5 The procedures described in this practice may also be applicable in sampling most non-corrosive liquid industrial chemicals provided that all safety precautions specific to these chemicals are followed. Also, refer to Practice E300. The procedures described in this practice are also applicable to sampling liquefied petroleum gases and chemicals. Also refer to Practices D1265 and D3700. The procedure for sampling bituminous materials is described in Practice D140. Practice D4306 provides guidance on sample containers and preparation for sampling aviation fuel.
1.6 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. USC units are reflected in parentheses.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.