Significance and Use
4.1 The practice described classifies soils from any geographic location into groups (including group indexes) based on the results of prescribed laboratory tests to determine the particle-size characteristics, liquid limit, and plasticity index.
4.2 The assigning of a group symbol and group index can be used to aid in the evaluation of the significant properties of the soil for highway and airfield purposes.
4.3 The various groupings of this classification system correlate in a general way with the engineering behavior of soils. Also, in a general way, the engineering behavior of a soil varies inversely with its group index. Therefore, this practice provides a useful first step in any field or laboratory investigation for geotechnical engineering purposes.
Note 3: The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent upon the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice provides a means of evaluation some of those factors.
1.1 This practice covers a procedure for classifying mineral and organomineral soils into seven groups based on laboratory determination of particle-size distribution, liquid limit, and plasticity index. It may be used when a precise engineering classification is required, especially for highway construction purposes. Evaluation of soils within each group is made by means of a group index, which is a value calculated from an empirical formula.
Note 1: The group classification, including the group index, should be useful in determining the relative quality of the soil material for use in earthwork structures, particularly embankments, subgrades, subbases, and bases. However, for the detailed design of important structures, additional data concerning strength or performance characteristics of the soil under field conditions will usually be required.
1.2 Units—The sieve designations are identified using the “standard” system in accordance with Specification , such as 75-mm and 75-μm, followed by the “alternative” system of 3-in. and No. 200, respectively.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This practice offers a set of instructions for performing one or more specific operations. This practice cannot replace education or experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgment. Not all aspects of this practice may be applicable in all circumstances. This practice is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this practice be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word “Standard” in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.