Significance and Use
5.1 Assigning a value to any property of the material in a container or in a lot, consignment, or delivery involves a measurement process that includes both sampling and testing procedures. The correctness of the value assigned depends upon the variability due to testing and sampling plan. Even when the variability due to testing is minimized by carefully developed procedures, correct and consistent estimates of the true value of the property are possible only when the sampling procedure avoids systematic bias, minimizes variations due to sampling, and provides a laboratory sample of adequate size.
5.2 Practice may not give the most efficient sampling plan that might be devised in special situations but does present a general procedure that gives satisfactory precision with an economical amount of sampling. Many plans that include stratified sampling can be found in textbooks and through the use of statistical software tools and calculators.
5.2.1 If not specified by the purchaser, the manufacturer will define suitable production lots based on one or more of the following: supply lot, production shift/time segment, production equipment or production line, operator, designated shipment, production run, or a combination herein.
5.2.2 If not specified by the purchaser, the manufacturer will define sampling and testing frequency based on the following: process capability or capability analysis, historical trends, level of detection rate required, confidence level requirements, known variations or special causes, or both. Every attempt to ensure conforming product is being produced, identify potential nonconforming product or proper isolation and identification, will be carried out by the manufacturer.
5.2.3 Sampling count and number of specimens will be based on standard practice listed within the document. Increase or decrease in count or frequency might be applied based on typical standard deviation, precision and confidence level, Measurement System Analysis (MSA), gauge R&R study, or gauge linearity and bias study. Higher variations would indicate reason for an increase in count, while lower variations would indicate reason for decrease in count, while lower variations would indicate reason for decrease in count.
5.2.4 When selecting a suitable sample size, several considerations need to be made: (1) size of the lot being sampled, (2) historical trends, (3) distribution of the data, (4) level of accuracy and confidence, (5) cost, and (6) practicality.
5.2.5 Minimizing and reducing measurement error will improve product testing reliability, reduce overall variation of test data accuracy, and improve confidence level of the reported values.
5.3 The smallest number of specimens required for a given variability in the average result will usually be obtained by (1) maximizing the number of shipping containers in the lot sample, (2 ) taking a single package end per shipping container in the laboratory sample, and (3) taking only one specimen per package. Unfortunately, this is rarely the most economical way to test a product because it normally costs most to take a shipping container as part of the lot sample, costs an intermediate amount to take a package from a shipping container as part of a laboratory sample, and costs least to take and test a specimen from a package or yarn.
5.4 To minimize the cost of sampling a lot of material, it is necessary to agree on the required variance for the reported average for a lot of material:
5.4.1 Estimate the variance due to lot samples, the variance due to laboratory samples, and the variance due to testing specimens.
5.4.2 Calculate the total variance for average test results for several combinations of the number of lot samples, the number of laboratory samples per lot sample, and the number of specimens per laboratory sample.
5.4.3 Calculate the cost of performing each of the sampling schemes considered in .
5.4.4 Select the sampling scheme that (1) has the required precision and (2) is most economical to perform.
1.1 This practice describes a procedure for the division of shipments of yarn into test lots and the sampling of such lots for testing.
1.1.1 This practice can be used for lot sample testing of yarns for both pre-fabric production and post-fabric production.
1.2 This practice is applicable to single, plied, or cabled yarns, and cords, made of any fiber or mixture of fibers, and supported on any form of package, including beams.
1.3 This practice also describes procedures for the sampling of yarn(s) removed from woven or knitted fabrics; however, when thus sampled, the yarns are usually not representative of entire shipments, as referred to in . Consequently, the resultant sampling can only be used to determine the characteristics of the yarn and is usually not used for acceptance testing. Moreover, it should be recognized that the characteristics of yarns from fabrics may be different than the characteristics of the same yarn(s), prior to being entered into the fabric manufacturing process.
1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system are not necessarily exact equivalents; therefore, to ensure conformance with the standard, each system shall be used independently of the other, and values from the two systems shall not be combined.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.