Significance and Use
Acceptance Testing—Option A1 of Test Method D 2256 is considered satisfactory for acceptance testing of commercial shipments because the test method has been used extensively in the trade for acceptance testing. However, this statement is not applicable to knot and loop breaking force tests, tests on wet specimens, tests on oven-dried specimens, or tests on specimens exposed to low or high temperatures and should be used with caution for acceptance testing because factual information on between-laboratory precision and bias is not available.
If there are differences of practical significance between reported test results for two laboratories (or more), comparative tests should be performed to determine if there is a statistical bias between them, using competent statistical assistance. As a minimum, use the samples for such a comparative tests that are as homogeneous as possible, drawn from the same lot of material as the samples that resulted in disparate results during initial testing and randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory. The test results from the laboratories involved should be compared using a statistical test for unpaired data, a probability level chosen prior to the testing series. If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected, or future test results for that material must be adjusted in consideration of the known bias.
Fundamental Properties—The breaking tenacity, calculated from the breaking force and the linear density, and the elongation are fundamental properties that are widely used to establish limitations on yarn processing or conversion and on their end-use applications. Initial modulus is a measure of the resistance of the yarn to extension at forces below the yield point. The chord modulus is used to estimate the resistance to imposed strain. The breaking toughness is a measure of the work necessary to break the yarn.
Comparison to Skein Testing—The single-strand method gives a more accurate measure of breaking force present in the material than does the skein method and uses less material. The skein-breaking force is always lower than the sum of the breaking forces of the same number of ends broken individually.
Applicability—Most yarns can be tested by this test method. Some modification of clamping techniques may be necessary for a given yarn depending upon its structure and composition. To prevent slippage in the clamps or damage as a result of being gripped in the clamps, special clamping adaptations may be necessary with high modulus yarns made from fibers such as glass or aramid or extended chain polyolefin. Specimen clamping may be modified as required at the discretion of the individual laboratory providing a representative force-elongation curve is obtained. In any event, the procedure described in this test method for obtaining tensile properties must be maintained.
Breaking Strength—The breaking strength of a yarn influences the breaking strength of fabrics made from the yarn, although the breaking strength of a fabric also depends on its construction and may be affected by manufacturing operations.
Because breaking strength for any fiber-type is approximately proportional to linear density, strands of different sizes can be compared by converting the observed breaking strength to breaking tenacity (centinewtons per tex, grams-force per tex, or grams-force per denier).
Elongation—The elongation of a yarn has an influence on the manufacturing process and the products made. It provides an indication of the likely stretch behavior of garment areas such as knees, elbows, or other points of stress. It also provides design criteria for stretch behavior of yarns or cords used as reinforcement for items such as plastic products, hose, and tires.
Force-Elongation Curve—Force-elongation curves permit the calculation of various values, not all of which are discussed in this test method, such as elongation at break, elongation at specified force, force at specified elongation, initial elastic modulus which is resistance to stretching, compliance which is ability to yield under stress, and is the reciprocal of the elastic modulus, and area under the curve, a measure of toughness, which is proportional to the work done.
Note 3—Force-elongation curves can be converted to stress-strain curves if the force is converted to unit stress, such as to centinewtons per tex, or pounds per square inch, or pascals, or grams-force per tex, or grams-force per denier, and the elongation is based on change per unit length.
Knot and Loop Breaking Force—The reduction in breaking force due to the presence of a knot or loop is considered a measure of the brittleness of the yarn. Elongation in knot or loop tests is not known to have any significance and is not usually reported.
Rate of Operation—In general, the breaking force decreases slightly as time-to-break increases.
Operation of CRT, CRE, and CRL tension testing machines at a constant time-to-break has been found to minimize differences in test results between the three types of tension testing machines. When tensile tests are performed at a fixed time-to-break, then reasonable agreement in breaking force has generally been found to exist between CRT and CRE tension testing machines. Consistent results are also obtained between different manufacturers of CRL tension testing machines when they are operated at the same time-to-break. The agreement is not necessarily good, however, between CRE or CRT tension testing machines on the one hand and CRL tension testing machines on the other even when they are all operated at the same time-to-break. The CRE-type tester is the preferred tension testing machine.
This test method specifies an average time-to-break of 20 ± 3 s as recommended by ISO TC 38 on Textiles, The International Standards Association test committee for standardizing tests for fibers, yarns, and fabrics. It also provides for alternate speeds, such as 300 ± 10 mm (12 ± 0.5 in.)/min when using a 250-mm (10-in.) gage length. See 9.2.
The tolerance of ±3 s for the time-to-break is wide enough to permit convenient adjustment of the tension testing machine's rate of operation, and it is narrow enough to ensure good agreement between tests. The difference in breaking force between tests at 17 and 23 s will usually not exceed 1.5 % of the higher value.
In case a tension testing machine is not capable of being operated at 20-s time-to-break, alternative rates of operation are included in this test method. These alternative rates may be used only by agreement between the parties concerned or when required in an applicable material specification.
Tests on Wet Specimens—Tests on wet specimens are usually made only on yarns which show a loss of breaking force when wet or when exposed to high humidity, for example, yarns made from animal fibers and man-made fibers based on regenerated and modified cellulose. Wet tests are made on flax yarns to detect adulteration by failure to show a gain in breaking force.
Tests on Oven-Dried Specimens and Specimens at High Temperatures—Tests on oven-dried specimens at standard or high temperatures are usually made only on yarns that will be used at high temperatures or will be used under very dry conditions which will affect the observed breaking force, for example, on rayon yarns intended for use in tire cords and yarns for other industrial purposes. Note that results obtained when testing oven-dried specimens at standard temperature will not necessarily agree with the results obtained when testing oven-dried yarns at high temperatures.
Tests on Specimens at Low Temperatures—Tests on specimens exposed to low temperatures are usually made only on yarns that will be used at low temperatures, for example, yarns used in outerwear designed for cold climates or outer-space situations. Low-temperature tests are made on coated yarns used in the manufacture of materials used in outdoor applications, such as screening fabrics.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of tensile properties of monofilament, multifilament, and spun yarns, either single, plied, or cabled with the exception of yarns that stretch more than 5.0 % when tension is increased from 0.05 to 1.0 cN/tex (0.5 to 1.0 gf/tex).
1.2 This test method covers the measurement of breaking force and elongation of yarns and includes directions for the calculation of breaking tenacity, initial modulus, chord modulus, and breaking toughness.
1.2.1 Options are included for the testing of specimens in: (A) straight, (B) knotted, and (C) looped form.
1.2.2 Conditions of test are included for the testing of specimens that are: (1) conditioned air, (2) wet, not immersed, (3) wet, immersed, (4) oven-dried, (5) exposed to elevated temperature, or (6) exposed to low temperature.
Note 1—Special methods for testing yarns made from specific fibers; namely, glass, flax, hemp, ramie, and kraft paper and for specific products; namely, tire cords and rope, have been published: Test Methods D 885
Note 2—For directions covering the determination of breaking force of yarn by the skein method refer to Test Method D 1578
1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.