Standard Active Last Updated: May 22, 2024 Track Document
ASTM D2140-24

Standard Practice for Calculating Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin

Standard Practice for Calculating Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin D2140-24 ASTM|D2140-24|en-US Standard Practice for Calculating Carbon-Type Composition of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin Standard new BOS Vol. 10.03 Committee D27
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Significance and Use

5.1 The primary purpose of this practice is to characterize the carbon-type composition of an oil. It is also applicable in observing the effect on oil constitution, of various refining processes such as hydrotreating, solvent extraction, and so forth. It has secondary application in relating the chemical nature of an oil to other phenomena that have been demonstrated to be related to oil composition.

5.2 Results obtained by this practice are similar to, but not identical with, results obtained from Test Method D3238. The relationship between the two and the equations used in deriving Fig. 1 are discussed in the literature.4

5.3 Although this practice tends to give consistent results, it may not compare with direct measurement test methods such as Test Method D2007.


1.1 This practice may be used to determine the carbon-type composition of mineral insulating oils by correlation with basic physical properties. For routine analytical purposes it eliminates the necessity for complex fractional separation and purification procedures. The practice is applicable to oils having average molecular weights from 200 to above 600, and 0 to 50 aromatic carbon atoms.

1.2 Carbon-type composition is expressed as percentage of aromatic carbons, percentage of naphthenic carbons, and percentage of paraffinic carbons. These values can be obtained from the correlation chart, Fig. 1, if both the viscosity-gravity constant (VGC) and refractivity intercept (ri) of the oil are known. Viscosity, density and relative density (specific gravity), and refractive index are the only experimental data required for use of this test method.

FIG. 1 Correlation Chart for Determining % CA, % CN, and % CP

 Correlation Chart for Determining % , % , and %  Correlation Chart for Determining % , % , and %

1.3 This practice is useful for determining the carbon-type composition of electrical insulating oils of the types commonly used in electric power transformers and transmission cables. It is primarily intended for use with new oils, either inhibited or uninhibited.

1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 10.03
Developed by Subcommittee: D27.07
Pages: 4
DOI: 10.1520/D2140-24
ICS Code: 29.040.10