Standard Active Last Updated: Jan 27, 2017
ASTM D2029-97(2017)

Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Content of Electrical Insulating Gases by Measurement of Dew Point

Significance and Use

5.1 Certain gases have excellent dielectric and electric arc interruption characteristics which make their use in electrical installations very desirable.

5.2 Water content, as the test parameter, is of great importance in determining the dielectric effectiveness of the gas. Under certain conditions, water may condense and become a conducting liquid resulting in a catastrophic dielectric breakdown of the insulation. The water content of these insulating gases as expressed by dew point is listed in Specifications D1933, D2472, and D3283.

5.3 Once the dew point is determined, a conversion to moisture content may be performed using Table 1. Once moisture content is known, the lowest temperature at which gas insulated equipment can be safely operated can usually be determined by reviewing manufacturers' specifications for the equipment.

(A) Vapor pressures in atmospheres at various dew points can be obtained by dividing the values for “volume percent'' in this table by 100. Calculations for this table were made by using the International Critical Table values for the vapor pressure of ice and liquid water. The vapor pressure of liquid water was used for values from 50 to 0°C. The vapor pressure of ice was used from 0 to − 81°C.

5.4 The dew point of the test gas is independent of the gas temperature but does depend on its pressure. Many moisture measurement test instruments are sensitive to pressure, and display moisture values at the instrument inlet pressure and not necessarily at the pressure of the system being sampled. It is therefore important to account for this condition to avoid serious measurement errors.


1.1 These test methods describe the determination of the water vapor content of electrical insulating gases by direct or indirect measurement of the dew point and the calculation of the water vapor content.

1.2 The following four test methods are provided:

1.2.1 Method A describes the automatic chilled mirror method for measurement of dew point as low as − 73°C (−99°F).

1.2.2 Method B describes the manual chilled mirror or dew cup method for measurement of dew point as low as − 73°C (−99°F).

1.2.3 Method C describes the adiabatic expansion method for measurement of dew point as low as − 62°C (−80°F).

1.2.4 Method D describes the capacitance method for measurement of dew point as low as − 110°C (−166°F).

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warnings, see 8.1.1, 9.2, 10.1.2 and 10.2.5.

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Book of Standards Volume: 10.03
Developed by Subcommittee: D27.07
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.1520/D2029-97R17
ICS Code: 29.040.20