Significance and Use
9.1 Cation exchange materials are frequently used in the sodium form to exchange divalent and trivalent ions in the influent water for sodium ions on the resin sites. This process is commonly referred to as softening water since it removes those ions that form a “hard” curd of insoluble salts with the fatty acids used in some soaps and that also precipitate when water is boiled. In such a process, sodium chloride is used as the regenerant to return the cation-exchanging groups to the sodium form.
9.2 This test method is intended to simulate the performance of such materials in actual usage. It may be used either to compare the performance of new materials or to compare the performance of a material that has been used with its original performance.
9.3 Regenerant concentrations and dosages used herein are typical for the types of materials used in this application. If different concentrations or amounts of regenerant are agreed upon by parties using this test method, this fact should be stated when the results are reported. Similarly, the test water specified is the agreed upon standard. Where other test waters or the water to be treated are used in the test, the analysis of the water in terms of total solids, sodium, calcium, magnesium, other di- or trivalent metals as well as the major anions present should be reported with the test results.
1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the operating capacity of particulate cation-exchange materials when used for the removal of calcium, magnesium, and sodium ions from water. It is intended for use in testing both new and used materials. The following two test methods are included:
Test Method A—Sodium Cycle
Test Method B—Hydrogen Cycle
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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