Significance and Use
Compression tests provide information about the compressive properties of plastics when employed under conditions approximating those under which the tests are made.
Compressive properties include modulus of elasticity, yield stress, deformation beyond yield point, and compressive strength (unless the material merely flattens but does not fracture). Materials possessing a low order of ductility may not exhibit a yield point. In the case of a material that fails in compression by a shattering fracture, the compressive strength has a very definite value. In the case of a material that does not fail in compression by a shattering fracture, the compressive strength is an arbitrary one depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure of the material. Many plastic materials will continue to deform in compression until a flat disk is produced, the compressive stress (nominal) rising steadily in the process, without any well-defined fracture occurring. Compressive strength can have no real meaning in such cases.
Compression tests provide a standard method of obtaining data for research and development, quality control, acceptance or rejection under specifications, and special purposes. The tests cannot be considered significant for engineering design in applications differing widely from the load-time scale of the standard test. Such applications require additional tests such as impact, creep, and fatigue.
Before proceeding with this test method, reference should be made to the ASTM specification for the material being tested. Any test specimen preparation, conditioning, dimensions, and testing parameters covered in the materials specification shall take precedence over those mentioned in this test method. If there is no material specification, then the default conditions apply. Table 1 in Classification D 4000
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the mechanical properties of unreinforced and reinforced rigid plastics, including high-modulus composites, when loaded in compression at relatively low uniform rates of straining or loading. Test specimens of standard shape are employed.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only.
Note 1—For compressive properties of resin-matrix composites reinforced with oriented continuous, discontinuous, or cross-ply reinforcements, tests may be made in accordance with Test Method D 3410.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. A specific precautionary statement is given in Note 11.
Note 2—This test method is technically equivalent to ISO 604.