Standard Active Last Updated: Dec 27, 2016 Track Document
ASTM D409/D409M-16

Standard Test Method for Grindability of Coal by the Hardgrove-Machine Method

Standard Test Method for Grindability of Coal by the Hardgrove-Machine Method D0409_D0409M-16 ASTM|D0409_D0409M-16|en-US Standard Test Method for Grindability of Coal by the Hardgrove-Machine Method Standard new BOS Vol. 05.06 Committee D05
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Significance and Use

3.1 This test method develops a measurement of grinding or pulverizing characteristics that can be used to evaluate the yield, or energy input, or both, required in a grinding or pulverizing process, which can impact a wide variety of processes, including combustion, coke-making, liquefaction, and gasification.


1.1 This test method2 covers the determination of the relative grindability or ease of pulverization of coals in comparison with coals chosen as standards. A prepared and sized sample receives a definite amount of grinding energy in a miniature pulverizer, and the size consist of the pulverized product is determined by sieving. The resultant size consist is used to produce an index relative to the ease of grinding [Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI)].

1.1.1 Some coals, such as some high-volatile bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals, can undergo physical change as the natural or seam moisture is released during handling and preparation. This change is often sufficient to alter the grindability characteristics that will be reported when tested in the laboratory and could produce different indices dependent on the conditions of drying and the moisture level of the 1.18 × 0.60 mm (No. 16 × 30) (see Test Method D4749) materials used for the test. Therefore, the repeatability and reproducibility cited in this test method may not apply for these high-volatile bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals.

1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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Book of Standards Volume: 05.06
Developed by Subcommittee: D05.07
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.1520/D0409_D0409M-16
ICS Code: 73.040