Journal Published Online: 01 January 1991
Volume 13, Issue 3

Degradation and Failure Modes of Carbon/Bismaleimide Laminates Subjected to a Tropical Environment



The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the degradation of the outermost layers of carbon/bismaleimide laminates as the result of exposure to a natural tropical environment. The surface that was exposed to the sun for 4000 h suffered complete degradation of the bismaleimide matrix to a shallow depth.

SEM fractography showed little difference in the fracture appearance of the fibers in a carbon/bismaleimide laminate, which displayed considerable fiber pullout, compared to fibers in a carbon/epoxy laminate, which displayed little pullout.

Author Information

Underwood, JH
U.S. Army Armament RD&E Center, Watervliet, NY
Kapusta, AA
U.S. Army Armament RD&E Center, Watervliet, NY
Pages: 4
Price: $25.00
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Stock #: CTR10224J
ISSN: 0884-6804
DOI: 10.1520/CTR10224J