Journal Published Online: 01 July 1987
Volume 9, Issue 1

Finite-Element Analysis of the Pullout Test Using a Nonlinear Discrete Cracking Approach



An axisymmetric finite-element model, in which fracture was simulated by means of a nonlinear discrete cracking approach, was used to study the pullout test. The pullout test involves measuring the force required to extract a conical frustum of concrete by pulling on an embedded steel disk in opposition to a concentric steel reaction ring at the concrete surface. The precise mechanism of failure and therefore the strength property of concrete, which is actually being measured by the pullout test, has been the subject of several recent studies. The present analysis indicates that failure initiates with the formation of a stable, primary crack system extending from the outer edge of the insert to a point beneath the reaction ring where it is arrested. A stress redistribution resulting from this cracking leads to the development of a secondary crack system which initiates below the concrete surface at the inner edge of the reaction ring and propagates towards the outer edge of the insert. This secondary crack system becomes the eventual failure surface defining the conical frustum. The failure surface appears to be completed by shear fracture of the remaining uncracked ligament. The ultimate load-carrying mechanism is aggregate interlock across the completed failure surface.

Author Information

Hellier, AK
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Sansalone, M
Structures Division, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD
Carino, NJ
Structures Division, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD
Stone, WC
Structures Division, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD
Ingraffea, AR
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Pages: 10
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Stock #: CCA10393J
ISSN: 0149-6123
DOI: 10.1520/CCA10393J