Journal Published Online: 01 January 1988
Volume 10, Issue 2

Freeze-Thaw Durability of Wet-Mix and Dry-Mix Shotcretes with Silica Fume and Steel Fibres



This investigation was undertaken to study the freeze-thaw durability of wet-mix and dry-mix shotcretes when tested according to ASTM Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing (C 666) Procedure A. Parameters of the air voids system were determined using ASTM Recommended Practice for Microscopical Determination of Air-Void Content and Parameters of the Air-Void System in Hardened Concrete (C 457-82).

The effect of substitution of condensed silica fume for part of the cement was studied for plain shotcrete mixes as well as for mixes containing steel fibres. It was concluded that excellent durability was achieved in nonfibre and steel fibre shotcrete mixes manufactured by both the wet-mix and dry-mix shotcrete processes when approximately 13% of the cement was replaced with silica fume. After 300 cycles of freeze-thaw, excellent durability factors exceeding 95% were achieved in both wet-mix and dry-mix shotcretes having total air contents in the range of 4.5 to 6.5% and spacing factors in the range of 0.27 to 0.31 mm. Substantial increases in compressive strength were also realized during the period of freeze-thaw testing. Flexural strength and toughness of the samples were also not significantly affected by the freeze-thaw cycling.

Author Information

Morgan, DR
Hardy BBT Limited, Burnaby, B.C., Canada
Kirkness, AJ
Hardy BBT Limited, Burnaby, B.C., Canada
McAskill, N
Hardy BBT Limited, Burnaby, B.C., Canada
Duke, N
Target Products, Ltd., Burnaby, B.C., Canada
Pages: 7
Price: $25.00
Reprints and Permissions
Reprints and copyright permissions can be requested through the
Copyright Clearance Center
Stock #: CCA10089J
ISSN: 0149-6123
DOI: 10.1520/CCA10089J