Significance and Use
4.1 This test method provides standardized procedures for obtaining cored specimens to determine the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of shotcrete during pre-construction, during construction, and from older shotcrete structures.
4.2 Generally, test specimens are obtained in situ when doubt exists about the in-place shotcrete quality due either to low strength test results during construction or signs of distress in the structure. Other uses of this method are to provide specimens for acceptance testing, construction control and to assess the condition, quality and uniformity of the shotcrete in accordance with Practice (see ).
4.3 Specimens obtained by this method are used to verify the thickness of shotcrete and aid in the visual assessment of the shotcrete quality, workmanship, defects, shotcrete-to-substrate bond and the condition of any reinforcement used in the shotcrete.
4.4 Shotcrete strength is affected by the location of the shotcrete in a structure. Vertical, sub-horizontal and overhead elements of the shotcrete structure may show variability. Core strength is affected by core orientation relative to direction of shotcrete application. These factors shall be considered in planning the locations for obtaining shotcrete samples and in interpreting strength test results.
4.5 Shotcrete is applied in single or multiple layers, as plain shotcrete, reinforced shotcrete, or fiber-reinforced shotcrete. Core samples containing wire-mesh and reinforcing bars shall not be used for compressive strength testing.
4.6 The strength of shotcrete is affected by moisture content, the specified moisture conditioning procedure for cores is intended to provide test specimens with reproducible moisture contents that minimize within-laboratory and between-laboratory variations.
4.7 Sample acquisition may require a combination of core-drilling, sawing, and grinding that may have the potential to adversely affect the sample condition if care is not taken during sampling and testing.
4.8 A sampling plan shall be established that indicates the number of samples and their locations (see ). The acceptance criteria for shotcrete core strengths shall be established by the specifier of tests (see ).
Note 1: Practice provides guidance on the development of a sampling plan for concrete in constructions. A number of methods that supplement the examination of hardened shotcrete by means of representative core samples and testing are discussed in ACI 506.4R.
Note 2: The core strength acceptance criteria cited in ACI 318 are based on a comparison of molded cylinder specimens and cores. Shotcrete strengths are always based on core specimens, therefore the 85 % factor used in core to cylinder comparisons is not relevant to the evaluation of shotcrete core strengths. A typical shotcrete specification reflecting standard industry practice is contained in ACI 506.2.
1.1 This test method covers obtaining, preparing, and testing cores drilled from shotcrete for length, compressive strength, or splitting tensile strength determinations.
1.2 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units shall be regarded separately as standard. SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard.
1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.