Standard Active Last Updated: Dec 22, 2021 Track Document
ASTM C359-21

Standard Test Method for Early Stiffening of Hydraulic-Cement (Mortar Method)

Standard Test Method for Early Stiffening of Hydraulic-Cement (Mortar Method) C0359-21 ASTM|C0359-21|en-US Standard Test Method for Early Stiffening of Hydraulic-Cement (Mortar Method) Standard new BOS Vol. 04.01 Committee C01
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Significance and Use

5.1 The purpose of this test method is to determine the degree to which a cement mortar develops early stiffening. It is intended for use by those interested in methods for determining the potential early stiffening of hydraulic-cement.

5.2 When used for estimating the relative tendency of a cement to manifest early stiffening, a judgment may be made by comparing the behavior in the penetration series (see 10.4.1 and 10.4.2) and the remix procedure (see 10.4.3) to differentiate a relatively less serious and less persistent tendency to early stiffening (false set) from one that is more persistent and, consequently, more serious (flash set).

5.3 Severe false setting in a cement may cause difficulty from a placing and handling standpoint, but it is not likely to cause difficulties where concrete is mixed for a longer time than usual, as usually occurs in transit mixing, or where it is remixed prior to placing or transporting, in concrete pumping operations. It is most likely noticed where concrete is mixed for a short period of time in stationary mixers and transported to the forms in non-agitating equipment, as on some paving jobs, and when concrete is made in an on-site batch plant.

5.4 Cements with severe false setting usually require slightly more mixing water to produce the same consistency, which may result in slightly lower strengths and increased drying shrinkage.

5.5 Early stiffening resulting from false set is not likely to cause a cement to fail the applicable time of setting requirement.

5.6 Early stiffening resulting from flash set, depending on severity, can cause a cement to fail the applicable time of setting requirement.


1.1 This test method covers the determination of early stiffening in hydraulic-cement mortar.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.3 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (Warning—Fresh hydraulic-cementitious mixtures are caustic and may cause chemical burns to skin and tissue upon prolonged exposure.2)

1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

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Book of Standards Volume: 04.01
Developed by Subcommittee: C01.30
Pages: 4
DOI: 10.1520/C0359-21
ICS Code: 91.100.10