Significance and Use
4.1 As determined by this test method, the pipe insulation lineal thermal resistance or conductance (and, when applicable, the thermal resistivity or conductivity) are means of comparing insulations which include the effects of the insulation and its fit upon the pipe, circumferential and longitudinal jointing, and variations in construction, but do not include the effects of the outer surface resistance or heat transfer coefficient. They are thus appropriate when the insulation outer-surface temperature and the pipe temperature are known or specified. However, since the thermal properties determined by this test method include the effects of fit and jointing, they are not true material properties. Therefore, properties determined by this test method are somewhat different from those obtained on apparently similar material in flat form using the guarded hot plate, Test Method , or the heat flow meter apparatus, Test Method .
4.2 The pipe insulation lineal thermal transference incorporates both the effect of the insulation and its fit upon the pipe and also the effect of the surface heat-transfer coefficient. It is appropriate when the ambient conditions and the pipe temperature are known or specified and the thermal effects of the surface are to be included.
4.3 Because of the test condition requirements prescribed in this test method, recognize that the thermal transfer properties obtained will not necessarily be the value pertaining under all service conditions. As an example, this test method provides that the thermal properties shall be obtained by tests on dry or conditioned specimens, while such conditions are not necessarily realized in service. The results obtained are strictly applicable only for the conditions of test and for the product construction tested, and must not be applied without proper adjustment when the material is used at other conditions, such as mean temperatures that differ appreciably from those of the test. With these qualifications in mind, the following apply:
4.3.1 For horizontal or vertical pipes of the same size and temperature, operating in the same ambient environment, values obtained by this test method can be used for the direct comparison of several specimens, for comparison to specification values, and for engineering data for estimating heat loss of actual applications of specimens identical to those tested (including any jackets or surface treatments). When appropriate, correct for the effect of end joints and other recurring irregularities ( ).
4.3.2 When applying the results to insulation sizes different from those used in the test, an appropriate mathematical analysis is required. For homogeneous materials, this consists of the use of the thermal conductivity or resistivity values (corrected for any changes in mean temperature) plus the use of the surface heat transfer coefficient when the ambient temperature is considered (for example, see Practice ). For nonhomogeneous and reflective insulation materials, a more detailed mathematical model is required which properly accounts for the individual modes of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation) and the variation of each mode with changing pipe size, insulation thickness, and temperature.
4.4 It is difficult to measure the thermal performance of reflective insulation that incorporate air cavities, since the geometry and orientation of the air cavities can affect convective heat transfer. While it is always desirable to test full-length pipe sections, this is not always possible due to size limitations of existing pipe insulation testers. If insulation sections are tested less than full length, internal convective heat transfer are usually altered, which would affect the measured performance. Therefore, it must be recognized that the measured thermal performance of less than full-length insulation sections is not necessarily representative of full-length sections.
4.5 The design of the guarded-end pipe apparatus is based upon negligible axial heat flow in the specimen, the test pipe, heaters, and other thermal conductive paths between the metering and guard sections. Some nonhomogeneous and reflective insulation are usually modified at the end over the guard gap in order to prevent axial heat flow. Avoid these modifications where possible, but for some nonhomogeneous insulation designs, they provide the only means to satisfy the negligible heat flow assumption across the guard gaps. Therefore, thermal performance measured on insulation specimens with modified ends are not necessarily representative of the performance of standard insulation sections.
4.6 It is acceptable to use this test method to determine the effect of end joints or other isolated irregularities by comparing tests of two specimens, one of which is uniform throughout its length and the other which contains the joint or other irregularity within the test section. The difference in heat loss between these two tests, corrected for the uniform area covered by the joint or other irregularity, is the extra heat loss introduced. Care must be taken that the tests are performed under the same conditions of pipe and ambient temperature and that sufficient length exists between the joint or irregularity and the test section ends to prevent appreciable end loss.
4.7 For satisfactory results in conformance with this test method, the principles governing construction and use of apparatus described in this test method must be followed. If the results are to be reported as having been obtained by this test method, then all the pertinent requirements prescribed in this test method shall be met or any exceptions shall be described in the report.
4.8 It is not practical in a test method of this type to establish details of construction and procedure to cover all contingencies that might offer difficulties to a person without technical knowledge concerning the theory of heat flow, temperature measurements, and general testing practices. Standardization of this test method does not reduce the need for such technical knowledge. It is recognized also that it would be unwise to restrict the further development of improved or new methods or procedures by research workers because of standardization of this test method.
FIG. 1 Guarded-End Apparatus
Note 4: When testing at ambient temperatures below normal room temperatures, theoretical analysis shows that the experimental heat flow direction is unimportant for a perfectly homogenous material. However, if the properties of the insulation vary in the radical direction, the experimental heat flow direction will significantly affect the measured thermal conductivity. Exercise great care when using data from a radial heat flow outward experiment for a radial heat flow inward application.
1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the steady-state heat transfer properties of pipe insulations. Specimen types include rigid, flexible, and loose fill; homogeneous and nonhomogeneous; isotropic and nonisotropic; circular or non-circular cross section. Measurement of metallic reflective insulation and mass insulations with metal jackets or other elements of high axial conductance is included; however, additional precautions must be taken and specified special procedures must be followed.
1.2 The test apparatus for this purpose is a guarded-end or calibrated-end pipe apparatus. The guarded-end apparatus is a primary (or absolute) method. The guarded-end method is comparable, but not identical to ISO 8497.
1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4 When appropriate, or as required by specifications or other test methods, the following thermal transfer properties for the specimen can be calculated from the measured data (see ):
1.4.1 The pipe insulation lineal thermal resistance and conductance,
1.4.2 The pipe insulation lineal thermal transference,
1.4.3 The surface areal resistance and heat transfer coefficient,
1.4.4 The thermal resistivity and conductivity,
1.4.5 The areal thermal resistance and conductance, and
1.4.6 The areal thermal transference.
Note 1: In this test method the preferred resistance, conductance, and transference are the lineal values computed for a unit length of pipe. These must not be confused with the corresponding areal properties computed on a unit area basis which are more applicable to flat slab geometry. If these areal properties are computed, the area used in their computation must be reported.
Note 2: Discussions of the appropriateness of these properties to particular specimens or materials may be found in Test Method (. ), Test Method , and in the literature
1.5 This test method allows for operation over a wide range of temperatures. The upper and lower limit of the pipe surface temperature is determined by the maximum and minimum service temperature of the specimen or of the materials used in constructing the apparatus. In any case, the apparatus must be operated such that the temperature difference between the exposed surface and the ambient is sufficiently large enough to provide the precision of measurement desired. Normally the apparatus is operated in closely controlled still air ambient from 15 to 30°C, but other temperatures, other gases, and other velocities are acceptable. It is also acceptable to control the outer specimen surface temperature by the use of a heated or cooled outer sheath or blanket or by the use of an additional uniform layer of insulation.
1.6 The use any size or shape of test pipe is allowable provided that it matches the specimens to be tested. Normally the test method is used with circular pipes; however, its use is permitted with pipes or ducts of noncircular cross section (square, rectangular, hexagonal, etc.). One common size used for interlaboratory comparison is a pipe with a circular cross section of 88.9-mm diameter (standard nominal 80-mm [3-in.] pipe size), although several other sizes are reported in the literature (. )
1.7 The test method applies only to test pipes with a horizontal or vertical axis. For the horizontal axis, the literature includes using the guarded-end, the calibrated, and the calibrated-end cap methods. For the vertical axis, no experience has been found to support the use of the calibrated or calibrated-end methods. Therefore the method is restricted to using the guarded-end pipe apparatus for vertical axis measurements.
1.8 This test method covers two distinctly different types of pipe apparatus, the guarded-end and the calibrated or calculated-end types, which differ in the treatment of axial heat transfer at the end of the test section.
1.8.1 The guarded-end apparatus utilizes separately heated guard sections at each end, which are controlled at the same temperature as the test section to limit axial heat transfer. This type of apparatus is preferred for all types of specimens within the scope of this test method and must be used for specimens incorporating elements of high axial conductance.
1.8.2 The calibrated or calculated-end apparatus utilizes insulated end caps at each end of the test section to minimize axial heat transfer. Corrections based either on the calibration of the end caps under the conditions of test or on calculations using known material properties, are applied to the measured test section heat transfer. These apparatuses are not applicable for tests on specimens with elements of high axial conductance such as reflective insulations or metallic jackets. There is no known experience on using these apparatuses for measurements using a vertical axis.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.10 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.