ASTM Standards: Making Wrought Products

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Course Description

This virtual training course is designed for all individuals who work with steels. You will learn how common steel wrought products, such as: rolled, forged, tubular, and wire products are made; and by using ASTM Standards improve your ability to understand how the product's mechanical properties are developed through steelmaking practices, chemical composition, inclusion control, and forming methods.

These new skills will improve your ability to identify the correct ASTM specification, grade, and their requirements when ordering steel products and reviewing material test reports (MTRs). These goals are achieved through the use of many Connecting-the-Standards© examples, including ASTM product specifications, general requirements specifications, test methods, and terminology standards. Online access is available for one year from the date of purchase.

Learning Outcomes

Participants who successfully complete this virtual training course will be able to:

  • recall how steel is made to produce wrought products;
  • identify and apply ASTM standard steel terminology for wrought steel products;
  • recall manufacturing methods for steel ingots and strand cast blooms, billets, and slabs, as used in ASTM Standards;
  • describe what a heat of steel, heat analysis, product analysis, and lot of steel are, as defined in ASTM Standards;
  • discuss steel refining practices such as inclusion control, rimmed, killed, and semikilled steels, and how these practices are used in ASTM Standards;
  • describe how rolled, forged, tubular, and wire steel products are made and how each unique product form is specified in ASTM Standards; and recall the anisotropic behavior of steels due the manufacturing direction of working and how this behavior affects the mechanical properties and testing of wrought steel products.

Who Should Attend

This virtual training course is designed for all personnel involved with steels, such as, engineers, inspectors, QA/QC technicians, NDE examiners, purchasers, inventory control personnel, tradespeople, manufacturing and repair companies, engineering procurement companies, and others working in most industries that use steel, including: civil construction (buildings, bridges), pressure equipment, ship building, water treatment, pipelines, oil and gas industries (oilfield, upgraders, refineries, etc.), chemical plants, petroleum refining, petrochemical plants, power plants, pulp and paper plants, fertilizer plants, and many others.

Course Outline

  • What is a wrought steel product?
  • How is steel made to produce wrought products?
    • Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking processes
    • What are heats and lots of steel?
    • What are rimmed, capped, killed, and semiskilled steels?
    • What are Clean and Dirty Steels?
      • Deoxidation, desulfurization, and controlling inclusion content and shape control
  • What are steel ingots, continuous strand castings, billets, blooms, and slabs?
  • How are rolled plates, sheets, and strips made?
    • Rolling direction and thickness reduction
    • Advantages and disadvantages of hot vs cold rolled steels
    • Applications for steel plate, sheet, and strip
  • How are steel forgings made?
    • What is steel forging?
    • Billets and blooms as forging starting stock
    • Open die and closed-die forging; NDE and repair welding
    • Advantages and disadvantages of steel forgings
    • Applications for steel forging
  • How are steel pipes and tubes made?
    • What is the difference between steel pipe and tube?
    • What are the pipe and tube permissible dimensional and weight variations in ASTM steel standards?
    • How are seamless and welded pipe or tube different?
    • How are FBW, ERW, and EFW pipe made?
    • Advantages and disadvantages of seamless and welded pipe or tube
    • Advantages and disadvantages of different welded pipe/tube types
    • What is required when ordering steel pipe and tube?
  • How is steel wire made?
    • Application for steel wire
  • What is anistrophic behavior of wrought steels and why is it so important?
    • How are test specimens oriented in the wrought product to measure mechanical properties in different directions?
  • What are laminations and lamellar tearing?
Reference Materials Included

The following referenced materials are included in this course:

  • ASTM A6/A6M General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes, and Sheet Piling
  • ASTM A106/A106M-19a Standard Specification for Seamless Carbon Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service
  • ASTM A108 Standard Specification for Steel Bar, Carbon and Alloy, Cold-Finished
  • ASTM A131/A131M-19 Standard Specification for Structural Steel for Ships
  • ASTM A370 Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products
  • ASTM A510/A510M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel, and Alloy Steel
  • ASTM A788/A788M Standard Specification for Steel Forgings, General Requirements
  • ASTM A941 Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys
  • ASTM E7 Standard Terminology Relating to Metallography
  • ASTM E45 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel
  • Form and Style For ASTM Standards

CASTI e-Instructor Support

CASTI e-Instructor provides support for any questions about the online content. To contact the e-instructor, email astm_einstructor@casti.ca

About the Author

This course was written and maintained by CASTI

How Learning is Assessed

This course includes a final examination. A score of 80% or higher must be achieved to pass the assessment.

Certificate and CEUs

0.4 CEUs or 4 PDH

Upon successful completion of this course, a certificate of completion will be issued.

Related Courses

You may also be interested in these related Virtual Training Courses and On Demand Webinars:

  • CASTI Virtual Training Courses
    • Steel Basics - Using ASTM Standards
      • Carbon and Alloy Steels
      • ASTM Steel Standards Structure
  • CASTI On Demand Webinars
    • Steel Basics - Using ASTM Standards
      • What are Carbon Steels?
      • What are Alloy Steels?
      • How is Steel Made?
      • How are Rolled, Forged, Pipe, Tube, & Wire Products Made?
      • How are Mechanical Properties Tested & Reported?
      • ASTM Steel Standards Structure