Journal Published Online: 04 March 2024
Volume 13, Issue 1

Dispersion and Spatial Distribution of Air Voids or Microspheres in Assessing Frost Resistance of Concrete



The standard spacing factor developed by Powers is typically used to evaluate the quality of the air void system in hardened concrete, but it does not always correlate with durability of the concrete. Several air void spacing equations, which are also applicable when polymeric microspheres are used in place of air entrainment, have been proposed because of the need for a more robust and comprehensive basis to evaluate the quality of the air void system. However, the spacing parameters provided by the various proposed equations, when used as sole measures in predicting the frost resistance of concrete, do not seem to do any better than the standard spacing factor. Dispersion and spatial distribution have been shown to be effective ways of describing air void or microsphere systems in hardened concrete because they have been quantified to establish criteria to assess the frost resistance of concrete. In this paper, dispersion and distribution factors are further elaborated upon to explain how they characterize zones that are protected by air voids or microspheres in the concrete. Criteria to assess the durability of concrete under rapid cycles of freezing and thawing based on the dispersion and distribution factors are linked to the exposure classes defined in the ACI 318 Code and in the recently proposed Unified Durability Guidance in ACI Committee Documents.

Author Information

Attiogbe, Emmanuel K.
CEM Innovations, Discovery Bay, CA, USA
Pages: 13
Price: $25.00
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Stock #: ACEM20230035
ISSN: 2379-1357
DOI: 10.1520/ACEM20230035