Journal Published Online: 25 March 2024
Volume 13, Issue 1

Effect of Iron Ore and Copper Ore Tailings on Engineering Properties and Hydration Products of Sustainable Cement Mortar



The prohibition of river sand mining has drawn the attention of researchers in finding practicable alternatives. In the approach of finding these alternatives, it is essential to ensure minimal or zero impairment to the ecological balance, which can be mainly attained by making use of industrial waste/byproducts. The wastes from the mining industry are the major contributors in causing impairment to the environment, and their influence on the stability of mortars on using as fine aggregates needs to be systematically investigated with the view of long-term performance concerns. Thus, the present study explores the applicability of mine tailings and finding the optimum dosage in cement mortars by investigating the engineering properties and microstructure development with the aid of qualitative and quantitative analysis associated with hydration products. The studies confirm that the increased consumption of portlandite for secondary hydration reactions followed by the additional formation of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrate (CASH) phases in mine tailing-based mortars helped in achieving a quality microstructure. These additional formations of CSH and CASH phases are also confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy by identifying the shift of Si-O-Si stretching vibration bands toward a lower wavenumber. The lowering of calcium/silicate atomic ratio and increased formation of mineralogical compounds related to CSH and CASH in x-ray diffraction patterns also confirms the same. Gismondine, chabazite, and hillebrandite are the additional phases formed and found to take part in refining the pore structure. This enhanced performance of mine tailing mortars was also verified with the aid of a modified Andreasen and Andersen particle packing model. The formation of high-quality microstructure is reflected in the hardened properties of optimized cement mortar in the proportion of 20 % for iron ore tailing and 30 % for copper ore tailing.

Author Information

Sumukh, Ekkeri Prakash
Sustainable Construction and Building Materials Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Karnataka, India
Das, Bibhuti Bhusan
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Mangaluru, India
Barbhuiya, Salim
Department of Engineering and Construction, University of East London, London, UK
Pages: 26
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Stock #: ACEM20230031
ISSN: 2379-1357
DOI: 10.1520/ACEM20230031