Journal Published Online: 30 December 2016
Volume 5, Issue 2

Criteria for Freeze-Thaw Resistant Concrete Mixtures



Concrete, especially for improved durability, is typically specified with prescriptive provisions. More recently there has been increasing interest in evolving towards performance-based specifications, both within state highway agencies and industry (FHWA, 2014, “Guide to Developing Performance-Related Specifications, FHWA-RD-98-155, FHWA-RD-98-156, FHWA-RD-98-171, Vol. III, Appendix C,”, last accessed July 28, 2014; ACI Committee 329, Report on Performance-Based Requirements for Concrete, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, 2010; The P2P Initiative, 2014, “National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, Silver Spring,”, last accessed July 28, 2014). One of the challenges in successfully implementing performance-based specifications is the existence and use of reliable test methods and specification criteria that can measure the potential durability of concrete mixtures and provide the expected service life. A state pooled fund research project (TPF-5 (179), 2014, “Evaluation of Test Methods for Permeability (Transport) and Development of Performance Guidelines for Durability,”, last accessed July 28, 2014) was developed with an objective to propose performance criteria for concrete that will be resistant to penetration of chlorides, cycles of freezing and thawing, and sulfate attack. This paper summarized results pertaining to freeze-thaw resistance. Concrete freeze-thaw (F-T) performance was evaluated by ASTM C666/C666M-15 (AASHTO T161-08 (Standard Method of Test for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing, Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing, Part 2A: Tests, AASHTO, Washington DC, 2013)) and deicer salt scaling resistance was evaluated by ASTM C672/C672M-12. It was examined whether F-T performance of concrete correlated with results of rapid index tests for fluid transport characteristics of concrete. These tests included the rapid chloride permeability, absorption, and initial and secondary sorptivity. The impact of degree of saturation on the F-T resistance of concrete was also explored. Criteria for F-T resistant concrete mixtures depending on type of exposure were suggested.

Author Information

Obla, Karthik
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, Silver Spring, MD, US
Kim, Haejin
SES Group and Associates, McLean, VA, US
Lobo, Colin
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, Silver Spring, MD, US
Pages: 23
Price: $25.00
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Stock #: ACEM20150005
ISSN: 2165-3984
DOI: 10.1520/ACEM20150005