Significance and Use
Ductile vs. Brittle Behavior—Body-centered-cubic or ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in behavior when impact tested over a range of temperatures. At temperatures above transition, impact specimens fracture by a ductile (usually microvoid coalescence) mechanism, absorbing relatively large amounts of energy. At lower temperatures, they fracture in a brittle (usually cleavage) manner absorbing less energy. Within the transition range, the fracture will generally be a mixture of areas of ductile fracture and brittle fracture.
The temperature range of the transition from one type of behavior to the other varies according to the material being tested. This transition behavior may be defined in various ways for specification purposes.
The specification may require a minimum test result for absorbed energy, fracture appearance, lateral expansion, or a combination thereof, at a specified test temperature.
The specification may require the determination of the transition temperature at which either the absorbed energy or fracture appearance attains a specified level when testing is performed over a range of temperatures.
Further information on the significance of impact testing appears in Annex A5.
1.1 These test methods cover procedures and definitions for the mechanical testing of wrought and cast steels, stainless steels, and related alloys. The various mechanical tests herein described are used to determine properties required in the product specifications. Variations in testing methods are to be avoided, and standard methods of testing are to be followed to obtain reproducible and comparable results. In those cases in which the testing requirements for certain products are unique or at variance with these general procedures, the product specification testing requirements shall control.
1.2 The following mechanical tests are described:
|Tension||5 to 13|
|Impact||19 to 28|
1.3 Annexes covering details peculiar to certain products are appended to these test methods as follows:
|Tubular Products||Annex A2|
|Round Wire Products||Annex A4|
|Significance of Notched-Bar Impact Testing||Annex A5|
|Converting Percentage Elongation of Round Specimens to|
Equivalents for Flat Specimens
|Testing Multi-Wire Strand||Annex A7|
|Rounding of Test Data||Annex A8|
|Methods for Testing Steel Reinforcing Bars||Annex A9|
|Procedure for Use and Control of Heat-Cycle Simulation||Annex A10|
1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard.
1.5 When this document is referenced in a metric product specification, the yield and tensile values may be determined in inch-pound (ksi) units then converted into SI (MPa) units. The elongation determined in inch-pound gauge lengths of 2 or 8 in. may be reported in SI unit gauge lengths of 50 or 200 mm, respectively, as applicable. Conversely, when this document is referenced in an inch-pound product specification, the yield and tensile values may be determined in SI units then converted into inch-pound units. The elongation determined in SI unit gauge lengths of 50 or 200 mm may be reported in inch-pound gauge lengths of 2 or 8 in., respectively, as applicable.
1.6 Attention is directed to ISO/IEC 17025 and E 1595
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.