Gasoline: Specifications, Testing, and Technology


    Early Bird Discount

    ASTM automatically applies a discount of 10% when participants register 60 days prior to the start of the class.
    *After the early bird period expires, registrations are subject to standard pricing.


    About the Course

    This extensive class provides broad coverage of the specifications, testing, technology, and regulations related to gasoline. You'll learn about the different types and components of gasoline, octane, volatility, drivability, as well as product quality control throughout the motor gasoline product value chain. The course covers specifications related to gasoline, gasoline additives, oxygenates, the refining process, the quality and distribution of fuels, and much more.

    The class is taught in a participatory atmosphere where questions and queries to the instructors and classmates are encouraged throughout the course. In addition to receiving the course presentation and notes workbook, you will also receive a copy of ASTM's manual on Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products, recently updated in 2019. The attendee will receive copies of over 30 ASTM standards, test methods, product specifications, and practices related to gasoline and oxygenates.


    Learning Outcomes

    By the end of this course you will be able to:

    • Understand the structure and organization of ASTM D4814, Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    • Recall how to interpret test data to determine if gasoline, included Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) meets required specifications
    • Recall how compositional variables, refining processes and additives affect octane and volatility
    • Define how product integrity is maintained throughout the storage and distribution system, from refinery to nozzle
    • Discuss RFG, oxygenates and ethanol mixtures in gasoline
    • Discuss RFG, mobile source air toxics (MSAT) requirements, the Federal Renewable Fuel Standard requirements, and other emissions-related fuels regulations
    • Discuss what the petroleum industry is doing now and in the future to encourage conservation, reduce emissions, and reduce our carbon footprint


    Who Should Attend

    A scientific background is not required for this course. It is intended for:

    • Petroleum company employees
    • Federal, state, and local regulatory personnel
    • Laboratory supervisors
    • Fuel marketing personnel
    • Pipeline company employees
    • Engine mfg. and testing personnel
    • Attorneys involved in fuels regulatory activity
    • Anyone involved in the purchase, sale, operations, or distribution of gasoline.


    Course Description

    Registration: 7:30 AM-8:00 AM on first day
    Class: 8:00 am-4:00 pm on the first two days. Following lunch on the third day the class will have a workshop, question and answer session, and case stories of gasoline related issues.

    Day 1 Module 1

    • ASTM International and Committee D02 Petroleum Products, Fuels, Lubricants, and Additives
    • Gasoline Composition, Chemistry, Production, and Refining Processes to make Motor Gasoline (MG)
    • Blending of components (hydrocarbons), oxygenates (ethanol and ethers) and other(s) to meet MG Specs (octane and volatility)Structure and Organization of ASTM D4814

    Day 1 Module 2
    • Spark-Ignition engine overview - port fuel injection and direct injection (DI)
    • Anti Knock Index, Octane scale, Test methods and gasoline specs (D4814)
    • Octane Requirement Increase (ORI) and Enhancers (Pb and Mn, MTBE), Deposit Control Additives, and Altitude and Climatic Adjustments

    Day 1 PM Module 3

    • Vapor Pressure and Vapor Liquid Ratio Tables 1, 3 and 4 of D4814
    • ASTM Volatility Classes, Vapor Lock, regional and seasonal variation in volatility
    • Impact of Volatility Regulations
    • Distillation (D86 and D7345)
    • Chemistry of Alcohols and Ethers, Product Specifications D4806 and D5798

    Day 1 Module 4

    • Effects of Ethanol and Other Oxygenates when blended into gasoline
    • Effects on Volatility, Evaporative and Exhaust Emissions
    • Cold and Hot Starting and DrivabilityCRC Structure and Organization; Relation to ASTM
    • CRC Drivability Programs
    • Drivability Indices and Equations

    Day 2 Module 5

    • Product Sampling D4057 for testing
    • Gasoline Specs D4814 and Test Methods (introduce/review Tables 1 and 2 of D4814)
      • Metals and Sulfur, Sulfates
      • Oxidation Stability
      • Gum Contamination
      • Copper and Silver corrosion
      • Aromatics and Olefins by FIA-1319, SFC, GC

    Day 2 Module 6

    • Vapor Pressure test methods (D4953, D5191, D5842, D6378)
    • Water Sensitivity, Phase Separation and Water Tolerance - Importance of Volatility
    • Gasoline Contamination and Filtration
    • Particulate and Particle Counting Methods
    • Microbial Contamination and Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC)

    Day 2 (PM) Module 7

    • Additives and Their Chemistry
    • Oxidation and Corrosion Inhibitors, Metal Deactivators
    • Engine Deposit Control Additives, their chemistry and performance in Fuel injectors and engines
    • Where additives are applied/injected throughout the MG refining and distribution system

    Day 2 Module 8

    • Gasoline Distribution, Pipelines, Rail, Marine, Truck/trailer
    • Terminals, Depots and Storage, Maintenance Product Integrity testing
    • Off-Road and Emergency Use, Extended and seasonal storage
    • Small engine issues

    Day 3 (AM) Module 9

    • Reformulated Gasoline and Renewable Fuel Standard Requirements
    • EPA and CARB Testing Requirements
    • Emissions and Regulatory Issues
    • Carbon Monoxide Reduction
    • Future Trends - What the petroleum industry is doing now to reduce our dependence on hydrocarbons, reduce emissions, and reduce our carbon footprint

    Day 3 (PM)

      Workshop, question and answer session with panel discussion, and case stories of gasoline related issues. This discussion will be customized for the specific attendance with participation invited from attendees.


    ASTM Standards Referenced

    Test Methods

    • D86 Distillation of Petroleum Products
    • D130 Detection of Copper Corrosion from Petroleum Products by Copper Strip Tarnish Test
    • D381 Existent Gum in Fuels by Jet Evaporation
    • D525 Oxidation Stability of Gasoline
    • D1319 Hydrocarbon Types in Liquid Petroleum Products by Fluorescent Indicator Adsorption
    • D2885 Standard Test Method for Determination of Octane Number of Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels by On-Line Direct Comparison Technique
    • D3606 Benzene and Toluene in Finished Motor and Aviation Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
    • D4052 Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density, and API Gravity of Liquids by Digital Density Meter
    • D4057 Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
    • D4176 Standard Test Method for Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels (Visual Inspection Procedures)
    • D4806 Standard Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasolines for Use as Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    • D4814 Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel
    • D4815 Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, tertiary-Amyl Alcohol and C1 to C4 Alcohols in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography
    • D4953 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Gasoline and Gasoline-Oxygenate Blends (Dry Method)
    • D5188 Standard Test Method for Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature Determination of Fuels (Evacuated Chamber and Piston Based Method)
    • D5191 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels (Mini Method)
    • D5453 Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Sulfur in Light Hydrocarbons, Spark Ignition Engine Fuel, Diesel Engine Fuel, and Engine Oil by Ultraviolet Fluorescence
    • D5482 Standard Test Method for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Mini Method-Atmospheric)
    • D5599 Standard Test Method for Determination of Oxygenates in Gasoline by Gas Chromatography and Oxygen Selective Flame Ionization Detection
    • D5798 Standard Specification for Ethanol Fuel Blends for Flexible-Fuel Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines
    • D5842 Standard Practice for Sampling and Handling of Fuels for Volatility Measurement
    • D5845 Standard Test Method for Determination of MTBE, ETBE, TAME, DIPE, Methanol, Ethanol and tert-Butanol in Gasoline by Infrared Spectroscopy
    • D6378 Standard Test Method for Determination of Vapor Pressure (VPX) of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, and Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate Mixtures (Triple Expansion Method)
    • D6469 Standard Guide for Microbial Contamination in Fuels and Fuel Systems
    • D7039 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Gasoline, Diesel Fuel, Jet Fuel, Kerosine, Biodiesel, Biodiesel Blends, and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    • D7220 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry
    • D7345 Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels at Atmospheric Pressure (Micro Distillation Method)
    • D7667 Standard Test Method for Determination of Corrosiveness to Silver by Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel-Thin Silver Strip Method
    • D7671 Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness to Silver by Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel-Silver Strip Method
    • D7757 Standard Test Method for Silicon in Gasoline and Related Products by Monochromatic Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Manuals

    • Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products
    • Motor Gasoline Chapter from Fuels and Lubricants Handbook updated 2019
    • Monograph 12 Reformulated Spark Ignition Engine Fuel and the Reformulated Fuels Standard
    Coordinating Research Council Reports
    • CRC Report No. 638 Intermediate-Temperature Volatility Program, 2003
    • CRC Report No. 666 Intermediate-Temperature E15 Cold-start and Warm-up Vehicle Driveability Program, 2013
    • CRC Report No. 667 Diesel Fuel Storage and Handling Guide, September 2014


    Fee Includes

    • All referenced ASTM standards and course notes
    • Coffee breaks
    • Course Completion Certificate with 2.1 Continuing Education Units (CEUs)


    About the Instructors

    The Motor Gasoline Training Course was originally developed by Salvatore J. Rand, who taught the course through 2019. The gasoline course has been revised, updated, and expanded in 2020 by David R. Forester and Jerome C. Horn.

    Mr. David R. Forester has over 40 years of experience in the fuel and refining additive business and has over 35 US patents on development of diesel and jet fuel additives, refinery antifoulants, and other refinery and process related additives. He has designed, implemented and/or automated many fuel test methods, including many ASTM standards. He has been a member of ASTM Committee D02 for over 20 years and currently serves as Chairman of Subcommittee D02.14 Stability and Cleanliness of Liquid Fuels which has jurisdiction for 49 ASTM standards, test methods, practices and guides. Mr. Forester has authored or co-authored multiple SAE and IASH papers or presentations, and authored Chapter 11, "Methods for Assessing Stability and Cleanliness of Liquid Fuels," in Significance of Tests for Petroleum Products 9th Edition published 2018 by ASTM. He was the "fuels" associate editor for the 2nd edition revision to The Fuels and Lubricant Handbook published 2019 by ASTM.

    Mr. Jerome C. Horn has a significant amount of fuels industry products technology, quality, regulatory, and performance-related experience obtained during a 35+ year career at Chevron USA Products Company. During his career, Horn was involved in all aspects of the fuels product value chain, ranging from technology to refining to end customer use. Horn's background involves technology performance of fuels and additives, including alternative fuels, among other aspects. He was deeply involved in the development of regulations which form the basis of US Federal and California reformulated gasoline requirements. Horn previously represented Chevron on the Board of Directors of the Coordinating Research Council. Horn has been a member of ASTM International Committee D02 and Subcommittee D02.A0 since 2010.


    About Sponsoring Committee

    ASTM is one of the world's largest voluntary standards development organizations. ASTM standards have grown to be among the world's most widely used and accepted documents. The 82-volume Annual Book of ASTM Standards contain over 13,000 standards written by 34,000 members on our 140 technical committees. The standards referenced in this course were developed by Committee D02 on Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants. For information on Committee D02, contact Alyson Fick at (610) 832-9710 or go to our D02 technical committee page.


    Attention: Professional Engineers

    If your state has a continuing education requirement for license renewal, ASTM training courses and ASTM membership can help you meet that requirement.


    On-Site Training Available

    ASTM can bring this course to your site! On-site training courses can also be tailored to meet your specific needs. For more information, please contact sales here or call 1-877-909-ASTM.


    How Learning Will Be Assessed

    Learning will be assessed through a series of question and answer sessions.


    Questions About the Training Course

    For information on this training course, please contact Training or call (610) 832-9695.


    Related Courses

    You may also be interested in these related courses:

    Live Courses

    Online Courses