Physical Testing Standards and Mechanical Testing Standards

    ASTM's physical and mechanical testing standards provide guides for the proper procedures employed in the determination of the physical, mechanical, and metallographic properties of certain materials, particularly metals and alloys. Using test methods such as scanning electron microscopy, hole-drilling strain-gage method, semiautomatic and automatic image analysis, and X-ray diffraction, parameters like elastic moduli, impact strength, ductility, hardness, residual stress, and grain size are measured. These physical and mechanical testing standards allow metallurgical laboratories, manufacturers, and other producers and users of metals and alloys to examine and evaluate such materials for strength and quality to ensure safety towards their end-use.

    List of physical testing standards and mechanical testing standards developed by ASTM:

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    Automated Testing

    E1856 - 13 Standard Guide for Evaluating Computerized Data Acquisition Systems Used to Acquire Data from Universal Testing Machines

    Calibration of Mechanical Testing Machines and Apparatus

    E4 - 16 Standard Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
    E74 - 18 Standard Practices for Calibration and Verification for Force-Measuring Instruments
    E83 - 16 Standard Practice for Verification and Classification of Extensometer Systems
    E251 - 92(2014) Standard Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gages
    E1012 - 14 Standard Practice for Verification of Testing Frame and Specimen Alignment Under Tensile and Compressive Axial Force Application
    E1237 - 93(2014) Standard Guide for Installing Bonded Resistance Strain Gages
    E1319 - 98(2014) Standard Guide for High-Temperature Static Strain Measurement
    E1561 - 93(2014) Standard Practice for Analysis of Strain Gage Rosette Data
    E1949 - 03(2014)e1 Standard Test Method for Ambient Temperature Fatigue Life of Metallic Bonded Resistance Strain Gages
    E2309 / E2309M - 16 Standard Practices for Verification of Displacement Measuring Systems and Devices Used in Material Testing Machines
    E2428 - 15a Standard Practice for Calibration and Verification of Torque Transducers
    E2624 - 17 Standard Practice for Torque Calibration of Testing Machines
    E2658 - 15 Standard Practices for Verification of Speed for Material Testing Machines

    Criteria for Metallographic Laboratory Evaluation and Safety

    E2014 - 17 Standard Guide on Metallographic Laboratory Safety

    Ductility and Formability

    E190 - 14 Standard Test Method for Guided Bend Test for Ductility of Welds
    E290 - 14 Standard Test Methods for Bend Testing of Material for Ductility
    E517 - 18 Standard Test Method for Plastic Strain Ratio r for Sheet Metal
    E643 - 15 Standard Test Method for Ball Punch Deformation of Metallic Sheet Material
    E646 - 16 Standard Test Method for Tensile Strain-Hardening Exponents (n -Values) of Metallic Sheet Materials
    E855 - 08(2013) Standard Test Methods for Bend Testing of Metallic Flat Materials for Spring Applications Involving Static Loading
    E2218 - 15 Standard Test Method for Determining Forming Limit Curves
    E2448 - 11e1 Standard Test Method for Determining the Superplastic Properties of Metallic Sheet Materials
    E2712 - 15 Standard Test Methods for Bulge-Forming Superplastic Metallic Sheet

    Grain Size

    E112 - 13 Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size
    E930 - 99(2015) Standard Test Methods for Estimating the Largest Grain Observed in a Metallographic Section (ALA Grain Size)
    E1181 - 02(2015) Standard Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes

    Impact Testing

    E23 - 16b Standard Test Methods for Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials
    E208 - 17e1 Standard Test Method for Conducting Drop-Weight Test to Determine Nil-Ductility Transition Temperature of Ferritic Steels
    E604 - 15 Standard Test Method for Dynamic Tear Testing of Metallic Materials
    E2248 - 15 Standard Test Method for Impact Testing of Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch Specimens
    E2298 - 15 Standard Test Method for Instrumented Impact Testing of Metallic Materials


    E45 - 18 Standard Test Methods for Determining the Inclusion Content of Steel
    E2283 - 08(2014) Standard Practice for Extreme Value Analysis of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel and Other Microstructural Features

    Indentation Hardness Testing

    E10 - 17 Standard Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials
    E18 - 17e1 Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials
    E92 - 17 Standard Test Methods for Vickers Hardness and Knoop Hardness of Metallic Materials
    E103 - 17 Standard Practice for Rapid Indentation Hardness Testing of Metallic Materials
    E2546 - 15 Standard Practice for Instrumented Indentation Testing

    Light Microscopy

    E883 - 11(2017) Standard Guide for Reflected–Light Photomicrography
    E1951 - 14 Standard Guide for Calibrating Reticles and Light Microscope Magnifications

    Microindentation Hardness Testing

    E384 - 17 Standard Test Method for Microindentation Hardness of Materials

    Quantitative Metallography

    E562 - 11 Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count
    E1077 - 14 Standard Test Methods for Estimating the Depth of Decarburization of Steel Specimens
    E1245 - 03(2016) Standard Practice for Determining the Inclusion or Second-Phase Constituent Content of Metals by Automatic Image Analysis
    E1268 - 01(2016) Standard Practice for Assessing the Degree of Banding or Orientation of Microstructures
    E1382 - 97(2015) Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size Using Semiautomatic and Automatic Image Analysis
    E2109 - 01(2014) Standard Test Methods for Determining Area Percentage Porosity in Thermal Sprayed Coatings
    E2567 - 16a Standard Test Method for Determining Nodularity And Nodule Count In Ductile Iron Using Image Analysis

    Residual Stress Measurement

    E837 - 13a Standard Test Method for Determining Residual Stresses by the Hole-Drilling Strain-Gage Method
    E915 - 16 Standard Test Method for Verifying the Alignment of X-Ray Diffraction Instrumentation for Residual Stress Measurement
    E1426 - 14 Standard Test Method for Determining the X-Ray Elastic Constants for Use in the Measurement of Residual Stress Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques
    E1685 - 13 Standard Practice for Measuring the Change in Length of Fasteners Using the Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Technique
    E1928 - 13 Standard Practice for Estimating the Approximate Residual Circumferential Stress in Straight Thin-walled Tubing
    E2860 - 12 Standard Test Method for Residual Stress Measurement by X-Ray Diffraction for Bearing Steels

    Specimen Preparation

    E3 - 11(2017) Standard Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens
    E340 - 15 Standard Practice for Macroetching Metals and Alloys
    E381 - 17 Standard Method of Macroetch Testing Steel Bars, Billets, Blooms, and Forgings
    E407 - 07(2015)e1 Standard Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys
    E768 - 99(2010)e1 Standard Guide for Preparing and Evaluating Specimens for Automatic Inclusion Assessment of Steel
    E1180 - 08(2014) Standard Practice for Preparing Sulfur Prints for Macrostructural Evaluation
    E1351 - 01(2012) Standard Practice for Production and Evaluation of Field Metallographic Replicas
    E1558 - 09(2014) Standard Guide for Electrolytic Polishing of Metallographic Specimens
    E1920 - 03(2014) Standard Guide for Metallographic Preparation of Thermal Sprayed Coatings
    E2015 - 04(2014) Standard Guide for Preparation of Plastics and Polymeric Specimens for Microstructural Examination

    Task Group on E10 and E18 Portable Hardness Testers

    E110 - 14 Standard Test Method for Rockwell and Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers

    Task Group on the Development of E140 Conversion Tables for Ni-Cr-Mo Precipitation Hardened Alloys and Martensitic Stainless Steels

    E140 - 12be1 Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness, and Leeb Hardness


    E7 - 17 Standard Terminology Relating to Metallography
    E175 - 82(2010) Standard Terminology of Microscopy


    E6 - 15e1 Standard Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing

    Uniaxial Testing

    E8 / E8M - 16a Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
    E9 - 09(2018) Standard Test Methods of Compression Testing of Metallic Materials at Room Temperature
    E21 - 17 Standard Test Methods for Elevated Temperature Tension Tests of Metallic Materials
    E111 - 17 Standard Test Method for Young’s Modulus, Tangent Modulus, and Chord Modulus
    E132 - 17 Standard Test Method for Poisson’s Ratio at Room Temperature
    E139 - 11 Standard Test Methods for Conducting Creep, Creep-Rupture, and Stress-Rupture Tests of Metallic Materials
    E143 - 13 Standard Test Method for Shear Modulus at Room Temperature
    E209 - 18 Standard Practice for Compression Tests of Metallic Materials at Elevated Temperatures with Conventional or Rapid Heating Rates and Strain Rates
    E238 - 17a Standard Test Method for Pin-Type Bearing Test of Metallic Materials
    E328 - 13 Standard Test Methods for Stress Relaxation Tests for Materials and Structures
    E345 - 16 Standard Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Foil
    E633 - 13 Standard Guide for Use of Thermocouples in Creep and Stress-Rupture Testing to 1800°F (1000°C) in Air
    E1450 - 16 Standard Test Method for Tension Testing of Structural Alloys in Liquid Helium
    E1875 - 13 Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio by Sonic Resonance
    E1876 - 15 Standard Test Method for Dynamic Young's Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio by Impulse Excitation of Vibration

    X-Ray and Electron Metallography

    E81 - 96(2017) Standard Test Method for Preparing Quantitative Pole Figures
    E82 / E82M - 14 Standard Test Method for Determining the Orientation of a Metal Crystal
    E766 - 14e1 Standard Practice for Calibrating the Magnification of a Scanning Electron Microscope
    E963 - 95(2017) Standard Practice for Electrolytic Extraction of Phases from Ni and Ni-Fe Base Superalloys Using a Hydrochloric-Methanol Electrolyte
    E975 - 13 Standard Practice for X-Ray Determination of Retained Austenite in Steel with Near Random Crystallographic Orientation
    E986 - 04(2017) Standard Practice for Scanning Electron Microscope Beam Size Characterization
    E1508 - 12a Standard Guide for Quantitative Analysis by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy
    E2142 - 08(2015) Standard Test Methods for Rating and Classifying Inclusions in Steel Using the Scanning Electron Microscope
    E2627 - 13 Standard Practice for Determining Average Grain Size Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) in Fully Recrystallized Polycrystalline Materials

    Other standards developed by ASTM committees:

    3D Imaging Standards

    Additive Manufacturing Standards

    Adhesive Standards

    Aerospace Material Standards

    Analytical Chemistry Standards

    Asset Management Standards

    Atmospheric Analysis Standards

    Biotechnology Standards

    Construction Standards

    Business Copy Product Standards

    Carbon Standards

    Catalyst Standards

    Cement Standards and Concrete Standards

    Coal Standards and Gas Standards

    Composite Standards

    Computerized System Standards

    Consumer Product Evaluation Standards

    Copper Standards

    Corrosion Standards and Wear Standards

    Durability of Nonmetallic Material Standards

    Electrical Insulating Material Standards

    Electrical Standards and Magnetic Conductor Standards

    Electronics Standards

    Environmental Standards

    Fastener Standards

    Fatigue Standards and Fracture Standards

    Fire Standards and Flammability Standards

    Forensic Science Standards

    Geotechnical Engineering Standards

    Glass Standards and Ceramic Standards

    Industrial Chemical Standards

    Industrial Hygiene Standards and Safety Standards

    Laboratory Testing Standards

    Leather Standards

    Masonry Standards

    Medical Device Standards and Implant Standards