ASTM G31 - 21

    Standard Guide for Laboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals

    Active Standard ASTM G31 | Developed by Subcommittee: J01.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.02


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Corrosion testing by its very nature precludes complete standardization. This standard, rather than a standardized procedure, is presented as a guide so that some of the pitfalls of such testing may be avoided.

    4.2 Experience has shown that all metals and alloys do not respond alike to the many factors that affect corrosion and that accelerated corrosion tests give indicative results only, or may even be entirely misleading. It is impractical to propose an inflexible standard laboratory corrosion testing procedure for general use, except for material qualification tests where standardization is required. One purpose for this guide is to promote better correlation of results in the future and the reduction of conflicting reports through a more detailed recording of meaningful factors and conditions.

    4.3 In designing any corrosion test, consideration should be given to the various factors discussed in this guide, because these factors have been found to affect the results obtained.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide covers and describes the factors that influence laboratory immersion corrosion tests, particularly mass loss tests. These factors include apparatus, sampling, test specimen, test conditions (test solution composition, temperature, gas sparging, fluid motion, solution volume, method of supporting test specimens, duration of test), methods of cleaning test specimens, interpretation of results, and calculation of corrosion rates. This guide also emphasizes the importance of recording all pertinent data and provides a checklist for reporting test data.

    1.2 The specific evaluation of localized attack, environmentally assisted cracking, and effects of solution flow are not within the scope of this guide.

    1.3 This guide is intended to be used by those designing laboratory immersion tests who may not be familiar with all of the variables to consider and the pitfalls that could be encountered when designing and conducting this kind of testing. It should be used as a reference to ensure that the test will allow generation of data relevant to the application with the minimum of interferences.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    E8/E8M Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials

    E300 Practice for Sampling Industrial Chemicals

    G1 Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens

    G28 Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    G34 Test Method for Exfoliation Corrosion Susceptibility in 2XXX and 7XXX Series Aluminum Alloys (EXCO Test)

    G46 Guide for Examination and Evaluation of Pitting Corrosion

    G48 Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution

    G66 Test Method for Visual Assessment of Exfoliation Corrosion Susceptibility of 5XXX Series Aluminum Alloys (ASSET Test)

    G67 Test Method for Determining the Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion of 5XXX Series Aluminum Alloys by Mass Loss After Exposure to Nitric Acid (NAMLT Test)

    G71 Guide for Conducting and Evaluating Galvanic Corrosion Tests in Electrolytes

    G78 Guide for Crevice Corrosion Testing of Iron-Base and Nickel-Base Stainless Alloys in Seawater and Other Chloride-Containing Aqueous Environments

    G82 Guide for Development and Use of a Galvanic Series for Predicting Galvanic Corrosion Performance

    G107 Guide for Formats for Collection and Compilation of Corrosion Data for Metals for Computerized Database Input

    G108 Test Method for Electrochemical Reactivation (EPR) for Detecting Sensitization of AISI Type 304 and 304L Stainless Steels

    G110 Practice for Evaluating Intergranular Corrosion Resistance of Heat Treatable Aluminum Alloys by Immersion in Sodium Chloride+Hydrogen Peroxide Solution

    G112 Guide for Conducting Exfoliation Corrosion Tests in Aluminum Alloys

    G116 Practice for Conducting Wire-on-Bolt Test for Atmospheric Galvanic Corrosion

    G135 Guide for Computerized Exchange of Corrosion Data for Metals

    G170 Guide for Evaluating and Qualifying Oilfield and Refinery Corrosion Inhibitors in the Laboratory

    G184 Practice for Evaluating and Qualifying Oil Field and Refinery Corrosion Inhibitors Using Rotating Cage

    G185 Practice for Evaluating and Qualifying Oil Field and Refinery Corrosion Inhibitors Using the Rotating Cylinder Electrode

    International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standards

    ISO 11463

    ISO 11845 Corrosion of metals and alloys General principles for corrosion testing

    ISO 3651-1 Determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion of stainless steels Part 1: Austenitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels Corrosion test in nitric acid medium by measurement of loss in mass (Huey test)

    ISO 3651-2 Determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion of stainless steels Part 2: Ferritic, austenitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels Corrosion test in media containing sulfuric acid

    ISO 6509 Corrosion of metals and alloys Determination of dezincification resistance of brass

    ISO 8993 Anodizing of aluminum and its alloys Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion Chart method

    ISO 8994 Anodizing of aluminum and its alloys Rating system for the evaluation of pitting corrosion Grid method

    ISO 9400 Nickel-based alloys Determination of resistance to intergranular corrosion

    NACE International Standard

    SP0690 Standard Format for Collection and Compilation of Data for Computerized Material Corrosion Resistance Database Input


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.060 (Corrosion of metals)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/G0031-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM G31-21, Standard Guide for Laboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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