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This specification covers round and miscellaneous shape steel plain (flat) washers furnished in an unhardened condition. The washers are intended for general use bolt, nut, and stud applications to provide increased bearing surface, spacing, and to prevent galling. The washers shall be punched from hot-rolled, hot-rolled and pickled, or cold-rolled steel; or shall be machined from bar stock or tubing; or shall be forged. The washers shall also be tumbled, vibrated, or otherwise processed to minimize burrs. These washers may be zinc-coated, hot-dip-coated, cadmium-plated, or zinc-plated by using hot dipping, mechanical deposition, and electroplating processes. Chemical analysis may be conducted in order to determine the composition of washers and a hardness test may also be performed.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers round and miscellaneous shape steel plain (flat) washers furnished in an unhardened condition.
1.2 The washers are intended for general use bolt, nut, and stud applications to provide increased bearing surface, spacing, and to prevent galling.
1.3 Unless otherwise specified, the washers are furnished with dimensions conforming to B18.22.1, Type A, Tables 1A and Tables 1B.
1.4 Hardened washers for use with heat-treated structural bolts are covered by Specifications F436 and F436M.
1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A29/A29M Specification for General Requirements for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought
A568/A568M Specification for Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural, and High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, General Requirements for
A751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products
B633 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Zinc on Iron and Steel
B695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel
D3951 Practice for Commercial Packaging
F436 Specification for Hardened Steel Washers
F436M Specification for Hardened Steel Washers (Metric)
F606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets
F1470 Practice for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection
F2329 Specification for Zinc Coating, Hot-Dip, Requirements for Application to Carbon and Alloy Steel Bolts, Screws, Washers, Nuts, and Special Threaded Fasteners
ASME StandardsB18.22.1 Plain Washers B18.24 Part Identifying Number (PIN) Code System Standard for B18 Fastener Products
Military SpecificationDOD-P-16232 Phosphate Coating for Ferrous Metals Available from DLA Document Services, Building 4/D, 700 Robbins Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, http://quicksearch.dla.mil/
Federal SpecificationQQ-P-416 Plating, Cadmium (Electrodeposited)
ICS Number Code 21.060.30 (Washers, locking elements)
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ASTM F844-07a(2013), Standard Specification for Washers, Steel, Plain (Flat), Unhardened for General Use, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.orgBack to Top