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Significance and Use
5.1 This guide is intended to be used by manufacturers and users of A-UGVs: (1) to fully define capabilities of their A-UGV(s) or (2) to allow the standard requestor to describe the A-UGV capabilities required for the requested A-UGV to align with assigned task(s). A-UGVs that are covered within ASTM Committee F45 are industrial vehicles that, for example, can be automatic guided vehicles through mobile robots, can be pre-programmed-through-autonomously controlled, can operate indoors or outdoors in infinitely diverse environmental conditions and therefore, with infinitely diverse functionality. To fully describe and measure the usefulness of these vehicles, functionality can be divided into categories where associated capabilities can be independently measured. This guide therefore provides a decomposition of many, perhaps not all, categories and capabilities that are typical of current A-UGVs globally marketed.
5.2 Capability Categories:
5.2.1 Goal Navigation: Pre-Programmed—Capabilities are the various abilities of the A-UGV to navigate a series of externally-defined waypoints on the way to a final goal.
5.2.2 Goal Navigation: In situ—Capabilities are the various abilities of the A-UGV to navigate to a final goal by using the A-UGV system’s internal logic to determine the route.
5.2.3 Localization—Capabilities are the various abilities of the A-UGV to determine its pose within an environment map.
5.2.4 Docking—Capabilities are the various abilities of the A-UGV to stop at a position relative to another object or an absolute position in an environment.
188.8.131.52 Infrastructure Dependence—Sub-category describing the need of the A-UGV to rely on features in the environment for Goal Navigation: Pre-Programmed, Goal Navigation: In-Situ, Localization, or Docking.
5.2.5 Obstacle Avoidance: Single Vehicle—Capabilities are the various abilities of the A-UGV not to collide with an obstacle(s).
184.108.40.206 Types of objects that can be avoided and are within the A-UGV envelope—Describe the types of objects that can be avoided, as in , and are within the A-UGV envelope.
220.127.116.11 Types of objects that can be avoided and are outside of the A-UGV envelope—Describe the types of objects that the A-UGV can avoid, as in , and that are outside of the A-UGV envelope.
5.2.6 Changing Contour Area or Envelope—the A-UGV can change contour area or envelope using stock settings or while operating and stopped or moving.
5.2.7 Changing Payload—The A-UGV can transport fixed or moving payload(s) at 100 % rated weight and speed.
5.2.8 Impaired Communication Behavior—A-UGV action(s) when communication is disrupted.
5.2.9 Lost Communication Behavior—A-UGV action(s) when communication stops.
5.2.10 Environmental Conditions—Capabilities are the various abilities of the A-UGV to overcome environmental conditions. Section provides example standards referencing ingress protection (IP) rating and examples referenced within Practice -18 that affect mobility where other environmental conditions may also affect A-UGV capabilities (for example, electrical interference, humidity, etc.).
5.3 Fleet Categories:
5.3.1 Fleets of A-UGVs are defined in Terminology as a coordinated collection of vehicles. The following sections related to fleets provide descriptions of the capability categories that a single A-UGV has as one of the vehicles within a fleet.
5.3.2 Fleet Makeup—The A-UGV type as compared to the fleet: homogeneous (the same type and configuration as vehicles within the fleet), or heterogeneous (different type or configuration as vehicles within the fleet).
18.104.22.168 Fleet Task Assignment—Tasks can be given individually to the A-UGV or collectively to the A-UGV and the other vehicles within the fleet.
22.214.171.124 Information Sharing/Updating (for example, presence of obstacles, environment map changes)—The A-UGV can provide/receive data or knowledge to/from other A-UGVs or sensors.
126.96.36.199 Fleet Navigation Coordination—The A-UGV can interact with a fleet through a fleet controller for A-UGV navigation permissions or other navigation requirements.
188.8.131.52 Fleet Task Coordination—The A-UGV can share features (for example, task fulfillment requirements, such as: roller table docking issues causes a shifted pickup position; unit loader is required instead of a forklift) that the fleet can use to accomplish operations. A-UGV categories and capabilities are listed and described in the following sections. A standard test method is also shown in parentheses within a capability for those that are currently available as, for example Test Method , to allow the capability to be repeatably tested.
5.4 Goal Navigation: Pre-Programmed:
5.4.1 Can navigate a preprogrammed path to the goal (Test Method ).
5.4.2 If encounters obstacle, can leave the preprogrammed path and return to the preprogrammed path to the goal (Test Method , Practice ).
5.4.3 If blocked, can navigate an alternate preprogrammed path to the goal, for example, navigate a different hallway/aisle.
5.4.4 If blocked, can navigate multiple alternate preprogrammed paths to the goal, for example, navigate a third hallway/aisle if the second is blocked.
5.5 Goal Navigation: In situ:
5.5.1 Can determine and navigate an initial path to the goal (Test Method ).
5.5.2 If blocked, can determine and navigate an alternate path to the goal, for example, navigate a different hallway/aisle.
5.5.3 If blocked, can determine and navigate multiple alternate paths to the goal, for example, navigate a third hallway/aisle if the second is blocked.
5.6.1 A-UGV can find its initial pose automatically.
5.6.2 Given an initial pose, A-UGV does not get lost in a static environment, for example, office building (Test Method , Practice ).
5.6.3 Given an initial pose, A-UGV does not get lost in a dynamic environment, for example, warehouse with pallets being moved (Test Method ).
5.6.4 Given that the A-UGV is correctly localized, it becomes forcibly unlocalized, then it stops and requires human intervention to restart. The A-UGV becomes forcibly unlocalized when, for example, it gets picked up and moved to another location (kidnapped) or is intentionally told it is in the wrong location through software (both a greatly off position and an aliased position such as one aisle off).
5.6.5 A-UGV can automatically determine its pose after being forcibly unlocalized.
5.6.6 A-UGV can update its environment map based on detected changes in the environment, for example, continuous SLAM.
5.7.1 Can position at preprogrammed waypoints, for example, absolute coordinates.
5.7.2 Can dock with a static object, for example, conveyer.
5.7.3 Can dock with a moveable, but stationary, object, for example, another vehicle, pallet, or cart.
5.7.4 Can dock with coordinated movement between the A-UGV and the dock, for example, mid-air fueling.
5.8 Infrastructure Dependence—Ability to rely on features in the environment. This category is a subset of Goal Navigation: Pre-Programmed, Goal Navigation: In situ, Localization, and Docking.
5.8.1 Can rely on features in the environment that were specifically installed to assist A-UGV operation, for example, magnetic tape, QR codes.
5.8.2 Can rely on natural features, for example, walls, racking.
5.9 Obstacle Avoidance:
5.9.1 Can stop when path is obstructed, for example, pallet in the path (Test Method , Practice , Test Method ).
5.9.2 Can navigate around static obstacles without collision, for example, navigating around a box partially blocking a hallway (Test Method , Practice , Test Method ).
5.9.3 Can navigate around moving obstacles without collision, for example, navigating around a moving vehicle that crosses the A-UGV path (Test Method , Test Method ).
5.10 Types of Objects that can be Avoided and are Within the A-UGV Envelope (Practice ):
5.10.1 On ground, <10 cm obstacle height.
5.10.2 On ground, 10 cm to 20 cm obstacle height. Note that 20 cm is based on a test piece size described in ITSDF B56.5.
5.10.3 On ground, >20 cm obstacle height.
5.10.4 Elevated/suspended ≥20 cm and within the A-UGV envelope, <10 cm obstacle height. Elevated is measured from the bottom of obstacle to the ground.
5.10.5 Elevated/suspended ≥20 cm and within the A-UGV envelope, ≥10 cm obstacle height.
5.11 Types of Objects that can be Avoided and are Outside of the A-UGV Envelope:
5.11.1 Negative obstacles, ≤1 cm obstacle height, for example, missing tile.
5.11.2 Negative obstacles, >1 to ≤10 cm obstacle height, for example, removable panel on a raised floor.
5.11.3 Negative obstacles, >10 cm obstacle height, for example, loading dock, cliff, manhole.
5.11.4 Elevated/suspended above the A-UGV envelope and within the vertical projection of the A-UGV envelope.
5.11.5 Beside the A-UGV envelope.
5.12 Changing Contour Area or Envelope:
5.12.1 Can change contour area from stock settings;
5.12.2 Can change contour area while operating and stopped;
5.12.3 Can change contour area while operating and moving;
5.12.4 Can change envelope from stock settings;
5.12.5 Can change envelope while operating and stopped, and;
5.12.6 Can change envelope while operating and moving.
5.13 Changing Payload:
5.13.1 Can transport fixed payload at 100 % rated weight, speed, and;
5.13.2 Can transport moving payload (for example, robot arms, liquid tanks, shifting loads, unsecured (in bins), trailer loads) at 100 % rated weight, speed.
5.14 Impaired Communication Behavior (all sub-sections of : and can refer to Test Method )
5.14.1 When communication is impaired, A-UGV stops and when communication resumes, requires human intervention in order to restart normal operation.
5.14.2 When communication is impaired, A-UGV stops and when communication resumes, does not require human intervention in order to restart normal operation.
5.14.3 While communication is impaired, A-UGV has modified operation, for example, drive slower.
5.14.4 While communication is impaired, continues normal operation.
5.15 Lost Communication Behavior:
5.15.1 When communication is lost, A-UGV stops and when communication resumes, requires human intervention in order to restart normal operation.
5.15.2 When communication is lost, A-UGV stops and when communication resumes, does not require human intervention in order to restart normal operation.
5.15.3 While communication is lost, A-UGV has modified operation, for example, drive slower.
5.15.4 While communication is lost, continues normal operation.
5.16 Environmental Conditions:
5.16.1 IP Rating: refer to IP Rating scale, for example, EN 60529 (British BS EN 60529:1992, European IEC 60509:1989).
5.16.2 For each capability, list the environmental condition (Practice ) under which the A-UGV can operate (for example, mobility: ground surface with elevation change up/down; gap; grade; deformability; undulation; floor particulates; coefficient of friction; boundaries (for example, cold storage curtains)).
5.17 Fleet Makeup:
5.17.1 Homogenous A-UGVs.
5.17.2 Heterogenous A-UGVs:
184.108.40.206 Same manufacturer,
220.127.116.11 Same manufacturer with different configurations, and,
18.104.22.168 Different manufacturer.
5.18 Fleet Task Assignment:
5.18.1 Manual Task Assignment—Give each A-UGV its own task;
5.18.2 Automatic Task Assignment—Give fleet controller tasks to be performed by the A-UGVs.
5.19 Information Sharing/Updating, for example, presence of obstacles, environment map changes:
5.19.1 One A-UGV’s information is shared with one or more A-UGVs in its fleet from the same manufacturer;
5.19.2 One A-UGV’s information is shared with one or more A-UGVs in its fleet from different manufacturers;
5.19.3 Information from a sensor connected to the A-UGV system informs one or more A-UGVs in its fleet from the same manufacturer;
5.19.4 Information from a sensor connected to the A-UGV system informs one or more A-UGVs in its fleet from different manufacturers;
5.19.5 External systems can inform the fleet.
5.20 Fleet Navigation Coordination:
5.20.1 Stop and wait for permission to use a traffic zone (one A-UGV per traffic zone);
5.20.2 Gets permission to use a traffic zone without requiring stopping (one A-UGV per traffic zone);
5.20.3 Stop and wait for permission to use a traffic zone (more than one A-UGV per traffic zone);
5.20.4 Gets permission to use a traffic zone without requiring stopping (more than one A-UGV per traffic zone);
5.20.5 Does not require traffic zones, requires communication with fleet controller or other vehicles, or combinations thereof;
5.20.6 Does not require traffic zones and does not require communication with fleet controller or other vehicles, or combinations thereof.
5.21 Fleet Task Coordination:
5.21.1 Tasks can only be given when they are able to be executed;
5.21.2 Can give future time that task needs to occur;
5.21.3 Tasks are performed by one A-UGV but can only be performed by a subset of the fleet;
5.21.4 Tasks can require collaboration of multiple A-UGVs;
5.21.5 Can reorder execution of tasks when given new tasks;
5.21.6 Tasks can have priority;
5.21.7 Can change A-UGV performance based on predicted future tasks;
5.21.8 Tasks can have dependencies of other tasks.
1.1 This guide categorizes the autonomous capabilities of an automatic through autonomous-unmanned ground vehicle (A-UGV) based on the following list of capability categories:
(a) Goal Navigation: Pre-Programmed;
(b) Goal Navigation: In situ;
(d) Docking—Infrastructure Dependence;
(e) Obstacle Avoidance—Types of objects that can be avoided and are within the A-UGV envelope, and types of objects that can be avoided and are outside of the A-UGV envelope;
(f) Changing Contour Area or Envelope;
(g) Changing Payload;
(h) Impaired Communication Behavior;
(i) Lost Communication Behavior;
(j) Environmental Conditions;
(k) Fleet Makeup—Fleet Task Assignment, Information Sharing/Updating, Fleet Navigation Coordination, and Fleet Task Coordination.
1.2 This guide provides a basis for A-UGV manufacturers and users to compare the intended task to the A-UGV capability. This guide does not purport to cover all relevant capabilities or categories that an A-UGV can perform. Instead, this guide provides a method for defining A-UGV capabilities and limits of A-UGV capabilities within specified categories listed in .
1.3 One or more capabilities may be used to define the A-UGV capability and not all categories are required to be used for defining the capability of an A-UGV.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are not precise mathematical conversions to imperial units. They are close approximate equivalents for the purpose of specifying material dimensions or quantities that are readily available to avoid excessive fabrication costs of test apparatuses while maintaining repeatability and reproducibility of the test method results. These values given in parentheses are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
F3200 Terminology for Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles
F3218 Practice for Documenting Environmental Conditions for Utilization with A-UGV Test Methods
F3327 Practice for Recording the A-UGV Test Configuration
F3381 Practice for Describing Stationary Obstacles Utilized within A-UGV Test Methods
Other StandardsANSI/ITSDF B56.5-2019 Safety Standard for Driverless, Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles and Automated Functions of Manned Industrial Vehicles ANSI/RIA 15.08 BS EN 60529:1992
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ASTM F3470-20, Standard Guide for A-UGV Capabilities, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.orgBack to Top