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1.1 This specification covers the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for hardened steel Backup and Reaction washers for use with fasteners having nominal diameters of 1/2 in. through 3 in. and M14 through M80. These washers are intended for general-purpose mechanical and structural use with bolts, nuts, studs, DTIs, and other internally and externally threaded fasteners. These washers are suitable for use with fasteners covered in Specifications , , , , , , , , and .
1.2 The washers are designated by style denoting the shape, by type denoting the material, and by inch or metric dimensions.
1.2.1 The styles of washers covered are:
188.8.131.52 Reaction—Circular washers with a knurled surface on one side and a contoured outside diameter designed to couple with the installation tool.
184.108.40.206 Backup—Circular washers having a knurled surface on both sides.
1.2.2 The types of washers covered are:
220.127.116.11 Type 1—Medium Carbon or Medium Carbon Alloy Steel.
18.104.22.168 Type 3—Weathering steel. This specification provides for furnishing Type 3 to chemical composition or a Corrosion Index (CRI) of 6 or higher, at the supplier’s option.
1.3 The values stated in either inch-pound units for inch fasteners and SI units for metric fasteners and are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A193/A193M Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications
A194/A194M Specification for Carbon Steel, Alloy Steel, and Stainless Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both
A320/A320M Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for Low-Temperature Service
A354 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners
A449 Specification for Hex Cap Screws, Bolts and Studs, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105/90 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, General Use
A563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts
A563M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts (Metric)
A588/A588M Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel, up to 50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum Yield Point, with Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
A751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products
A1059 Specification for Zinc Alloy Thermo-Diffusion Coatings (TDC) on Steel Fasteners, Hardware, and Other Products
B695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel
D769 Specification for Black Synthetic Iron Oxide
F606/F606M Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets
F959/F959M Specification for Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Structural Fasteners, Inch and Metric Series
F1136/F1136M Specification for Zinc/Aluminum Corrosion Protective Coatings for Fasteners
F1470 Practice for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection
F1789 Terminology for F16 Mechanical Fasteners
F2833 Specification for Corrosion Protective Fastener Coatings with Zinc Rich Base Coat and Aluminum Organic/Inorganic Type
F3019 Specification for Chromium Free Zinc-Flake Composite, with or without Integral Lubricant, Corrosion Protective Coatings for Fasteners
F3125 Specification for High Strength Structural Bolts and Assemblies, Steel and Alloy Steel, Heat Treated, Inch Dimensions 120 ksi and 150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, and Metric Dimensions 830 MPa and 1040 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength
G101 Guide for Estimating the Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Alloy Steels
ISO StandardsISO 11408 Chemical conversion coatings Black oxide coating on iron and steel Specification and test methods
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ASTM F3394 / F3394M-20, Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Backup and Reaction Washers Inch and Metric Dimensions