ASTM F3394 / F3394M - 20

    Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Backup and Reaction Washers Inch and Metric Dimensions

    Active Standard ASTM F3394 / F3394M | Developed by Subcommittee: F16.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 01.09


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    1. Scope

    1.1 This specification covers the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for hardened steel Backup and Reaction washers for use with fasteners having nominal diameters of 1/2 in. through 3 in. and M14 through M80. These washers are intended for general-purpose mechanical and structural use with bolts, nuts, studs, DTIs, and other internally and externally threaded fasteners. These washers are suitable for use with fasteners covered in Specifications A354, A193/A193M, A194/A194M, A320/A320M, F959/F959M, A449, A563, A563M, and F3125.

    1.2 The washers are designated by style denoting the shape, by type denoting the material, and by inch or metric dimensions.

    1.2.1 The styles of washers covered are:

    1.2.1.1 Reaction—Circular washers with a knurled surface on one side and a contoured outside diameter designed to couple with the installation tool.

    1.2.1.2 Backup—Circular washers having a knurled surface on both sides.

    1.2.2 The types of washers covered are:

    1.2.2.1 Type 1—Medium Carbon or Medium Carbon Alloy Steel.

    1.2.2.2 Type 3—Weathering steel. This specification provides for furnishing Type 3 to chemical composition or a Corrosion Index (CRI) of 6 or higher, at the supplier’s option.

    1.3 The values stated in either inch-pound units for inch fasteners and SI units for metric fasteners and are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A193/A193M Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications

    A194/A194M Specification for Carbon Steel, Alloy Steel, and Stainless Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both

    A320/A320M Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for Low-Temperature Service

    A354 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners

    A449 Specification for Hex Cap Screws, Bolts and Studs, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105/90 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, General Use

    A563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts

    A563M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts (Metric)

    A588/A588M Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel, up to 50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum Yield Point, with Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance

    A751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products

    A1059 Specification for Zinc Alloy Thermo-Diffusion Coatings (TDC) on Steel Fasteners, Hardware, and Other Products

    B695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel

    D769 Specification for Black Synthetic Iron Oxide

    F606/F606M Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets

    F959/F959M Specification for Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Structural Fasteners, Inch and Metric Series

    F1136/F1136M Specification for Zinc/Aluminum Corrosion Protective Coatings for Fasteners

    F1470 Practice for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection

    F1789 Terminology for F16 Mechanical Fasteners

    F2833 Specification for Corrosion Protective Fastener Coatings with Zinc Rich Base Coat and Aluminum Organic/Inorganic Type

    F3019 Specification for Chromium Free Zinc-Flake Composite, with or without Integral Lubricant, Corrosion Protective Coatings for Fasteners

    F3125 Specification for High Strength Structural Bolts and Assemblies, Steel and Alloy Steel, Heat Treated, Inch Dimensions 120 ksi and 150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, and Metric Dimensions 830 MPa and 1040 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength

    G101 Guide for Estimating the Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Alloy Steels

    ISO Standards

    ISO 11408 Chemical conversion coatings Black oxide coating on iron and steel Specification and test methods


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/F3394_F3394M-20

    Citation Format

    ASTM F3394 / F3394M-20, Standard Specification for Hardened Steel Backup and Reaction Washers Inch and Metric Dimensions, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2020, www.astm.org

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