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Significance and Use
4.1 Assuming the vehicle stays on its path and an obstacle appears within the stop zone, the vehicle will collide with the obstacle. Even within the stop zone, obstacle detection should cause the vehicle to slow down as early as possible using non-contact sensing or contact bumpers. ANSI/ITSDF B56.5:2012 discusses a test method to detect standard test pieces beyond the minimum vehicle stopping distance at 50 % and 100 % of vehicle rated speeds.
4.2 This test method can apply to A-UGVs for testing obstacle-sensing capabilities and automatic guided industrial vehicles in automatic mode of operation in non-restricted areas as described in ANSI/ITSDF B56.5.
4.3 Researchers, used two-dimensional (2D) laser detection and ranging (LADAR) sensors mounted to an A-UGV. In contrast to the earlier experiments in which the test piece was static, in these experiments the A-UGV and the test piece were both moving. The 2D sensor was mounted to the A-UGV to scan horizontally with the beam approximately 10 cm (4 in.) above and parallel to the floor and confined to detecting the vehicle path (vehicle width) at the maximum stopping distance (coasting or braking). Note that the sensor scan width can be set to any width, including the ANSI/ITSDF B56.5 standard, non-hazard zone vehicle path width of the vehicle plus 0.5 m (1.6 ft). The test piece entered the A-UGV path within the exception zone, was detected by the safety sensor, and the distance of the test piece to the A-UGV and the A-UGV stopping distance measurements were calculated and analyzed.
1.1 This test method measures an automatic/automated/autonomous-unmanned ground vehicle (A-UGV) kinetic energy reduction when objects appear in the A-UGV path and within the stop-detect range of the vehicle safety sensors in situations in which the desired reaction is for the vehicle to stop as opposed to avoiding the obstacle by traveling on an alternative path. The test method measures the performance of the A-UGV only and does not measure the effect on the stability of loads. This test method describes the use of one test piece as described in ANSI/ITSDF B56.5. Other test pieces from ANSI/ITSDF B56.5 could be used. This test method is intended for use by A-UGV manufacturers, installers, and users. This test method does not substitute for required safety testing under ANSI/ITSDF B56.5 or other normative standards.
1.2 Performing Location—This test method shall be performed in a testing laboratory or the location where the apparatus and environmental test conditions are implemented. Environmental conditions are recorded as specified in Practice .
1.3 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are not precise mathematical conversion to inch-pound units. They are close approximate equivalents for the purpose of specifying material dimensions or quantities that are readily available to avoid excessive fabrication costs of test apparatuses while maintaining repeatability and reproducibility of the test method results. These values given in parentheses are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
F3200 Terminology for Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles
ICS Number Code 43.020 (Road vehicles in general)
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ASTM F3265-17, Standard Test Method for Grid-Video Obstacle Measurement, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.orgBack to Top