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    ASTM F3244 - 21

    Standard Test Method for Navigation: Defined Area

    Active Standard ASTM F3244 | Developed by Subcommittee: F45.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.08


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    Significance and Use

    5.1 A-UGVs operate in a wide range of applications such as manufacturing facilities and warehouses. Fig. 1 shows three example A-UGV types and test apparatus sizes to test A-UGVs intended for different vehicle tasks, types, sizes, and capabilities. Such sites can have both defined and undefined areas that are structured and unstructured. The testing results of the candidate A-UGV shall describe, in a statistically significant way, the ability of the A-UGV to navigate through a defined area with or without impairments. Whether or not an A-UGV is able to deviate from its path, or uses features of the local environment as input to its navigation method or both, should not result in a different test method. Rather, the capabilities of the A-UGV to adapt its navigation method in a given environment will be objectively determined by its performance in the test method.

    5.2 Three different manners in which a test method apparatus can be rendered are specified for use: physical boundaries, virtual boundaries, and floor markings (see Section 6 for apparatus specifics). Two types of impairments are specified that can be utilized as the defined area as part of a navigation test: obstacles and communication impairments (see Section 7 for more detail). The apparatuses and impairments chosen shall be appropriate to the application and environment in which the A-UGV will be used.

    5.3 These test methods address A-UGV performance requirements expressed by A-UGV manufacturers and potential A-UGV users. The performance data captured by these test methods are indicative of the capabilities of the A-UGV and the application represented by the test.

    5.4 The test apparatuses are scalable to constrain A-UGV sizes in defined areas to meet current and advanced next generation manufacturing and distribution facility operations.

    5.5 The standard apparatuses are specified to be easily fabricated to facilitate self-evaluation by A-UGV developers and users and provide practice tasks for A-UGV developers, users, and potential users that exercise A-UGV actuators, sensors, and controls.

    5.6 Although the test methods were developed first for A-UGVs, they may also be applicable to mobile manipulators and other types of industrial automated mobility equipment, as well as in other domains.

    1. Scope

    1.1 Purpose: 

    1.1.1 The purpose of this test method is to evaluate an automatic, automated, or autonomous-unmanned ground vehicle’s (A-UGV) capability of traversing through a defined space with limited A-UGV clearance. This test method is intended for use by A-UGV manufacturers, installers, and users. This test method defines a set of generic 2D area shapes representative of user applications and for different A-UGV types.

    1.1.2 A-UGVs shall possess a certain set of navigation capabilities appropriate to A-UGV operations. Two examples of such capabilities include A-UGV movement between structures that define the vehicle path or obstacle avoidance. A navigation system is the monitoring and controlling functions of the A-UGV, providing frequent A-UGV updates of vehicle movement from one place to another. A-UGV environments often include various constraints to A-UGV mobility, such as boundaries and obstacles. In this test method, apparatuses, impairments, procedures, tasks, and metrics are specified that apply constraints and thereby, standard test methods for determining an A-UGV’s navigation capabilities are defined.

    1.1.3 This test method is scalable to provide a range of dimensions to constrain the A-UGV mobility during task performance.

    1.1.4 A-UGVs shall be able to handle many types of open and defined area complexities with appropriate precision and accuracy to perform a particular task.

    1.1.5 The required mobility capabilities include either preprogrammed movement, autonomous movement, or a combination of both, from a start location to an end location. Further mobility requirements may include: sustained speeds, vehicle reconfiguration to pass through defined spaces, payload, A-UGV movement within constrained volumes, A-UGV avoidance of obstacles while navigating, or other vehicle capabilities, or combinations thereof. This test method is designed such that a candidate A-UGV can be evaluated as to whether it meets a set of user application requirements.

    1.1.6 This test method is used to evaluate the capabilities of a single A-UGV operating with commands and data provided to it by an operator (for example, locations of goal points, map of the environment), as well as those derived from its own sensors (for example, locations of obstacles in the environment), as opposed to information provided to it from another A-UGV or fleet controller. There may be future standards that address the capabilities of multiple A-UGVs – or fleets – that work together.

    1.1.7 This test method does not consider the act of acquiring or removing payloads, such as picking up/dropping off a pallet or connecting to/disconnecting from a trailer, during navigation. The A-UGV may have a payload as part of its configuration (see Practice F3327) that will be unchanged during the test. A future standard may address these types of capabilities during navigation.

    1.1.8 Performing Location—This test method shall be performed in a location where the apparatus and environmental test conditions can be fully implemented. Environmental conditions are specified and recorded (see Practice F3218).

    1.1.9 Additional test methods within Committee F45 are anticipated to be developed to address additional or advanced mobility capability requirements, such as a fleet of A-UGVs coordinating their movement through a facility.

    1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are not precise mathematical conversions to inch-pound units. They are close approximate equivalents for the purpose of specifying material dimensions or quantities that are readily available to avoid excessive fabrication costs of test apparatuses while maintaining repeatability and reproducibility of the test method results. These values given in parentheses are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. Safety standards such as ANSI/ITSDF B56.5, ISO 3691-4:2020, or other safety standards should be followed. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    F3200 Terminology for Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles

    F3218 Practice for Documenting Environmental Conditions for Utilization with A-UGV Test Methods

    F3243 Practice for Implementing Communications Impairments on A-UGV Systems

    F3327 Practice for Recording the A-UGV Test Configuration

    F3381 Practice for Describing Stationary Obstacles Utilized within A-UGV Test Methods

    F3499 Test Method for Confirming the Docking Performance of A-UGVs

    ISO Standard

    ISO 3691-4:2020 Industrial Trucks - Safety Requirements And Verification - Part 4: Driverless Industrial Trucks And Their Systems


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 35.240.60 (IT applications in transport); 43.020 (Road vehicles in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/F3244-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM F3244-21, Standard Test Method for Navigation: Defined Area, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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