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Significance and Use
4.1.1 Various lighting conditions can potentially affect A-UGV optical sensor performance by affecting sensor and in turn, A-UGV responsiveness. Lighting sources can include ambient lighting as well as light emitters associated A-UGV operation. Two setups for lighting include direct and indirect source applied to the A-UGV. Direct lighting can also include reflected light from a highly reflective surface and implies that the source is directed at the light-affected components of the A-UGV (for example, sensors). Indirect or ambient light includes lighting where the source is not directly applied to the light-affected components of the A-UGV. Lighting exposure is either continuous light applied to the A-UGV or transitional in which the vehicle passes through various lighting conditions and levels. Light intensity is divided into five levels exemplified through dark, typical indoor lighting, and full sunlight.
4.1.2 Ambient Lighting Type:
184.108.40.206 Exposed bulb,
220.127.116.11 Light from another vehicle,
4.1.3 Ambient Lighting Source:
18.104.22.168 Direct Highly-Concentrated, Directional Lighting,
22.214.171.124 Indirect and Diffused.
4.1.4 Ambient Lighting Source Location—Record light source location and elevation with respect to the vehicle (refer to ).
FIG. 1 Lighting and Air Velocity (see ) Direction (a) Top View and (b) Side View and (c) Light Source Elevation Side View with Respect to the A-UGV; The “front” of the A-UGV is defined by vehicle manufacturer
FIG. 1 Lighting and Air Velocity (see ) Direction (a) Top View and (b) Side View and (c) Light Source Elevation Side View with Respect to the A-UGV; The “front” of the A-UGV is defined by vehicle manufacturer (continued)
126.96.36.199 Elevation with respect to A-UGV path.
188.8.131.52 Location with respect to the A-UGV (indicate light source on the test method drawing; for directional lighting only).
4.1.5 Lighting Levels:
184.108.40.206 Level 1: 0 to 1 LUX (for example, dark).
220.127.116.11 Level 2: 2 to 99 LUX (for example, dim).
18.104.22.168 Level 3: 100 to 1000 LUX (for example, office environment).
22.214.171.124 Level 4: 1001 to 9999 LUX (for example, bright indoors, dim outdoors).
126.96.36.199 Level 5: 10 000 LUX and above (for example, full sunlight).
4.1.6 Spectrum—If useful to the test method, record the spectrum color and approximate wavelength (for example, violet: 400 nm).
4.1.7 Light Exposure:
188.8.131.52 Continuous—The same lighting sources and lighting levels throughout the test apparatus (for example, start, between area, and goal all have the same lighting condition).
184.108.40.206 Transitional—Moving between two lighting levels or lighting sources, or both.
4.2 External Sensor Emission:
4.2.1 When emitters are outside of the A-UGV (for example, from another A-UGV, the environment) that can potentially interfere with the A-UGV sensor system. External, unnatural radiation sources can affect the A-UGV performance, for example: multiple time-of-flight cameras, fork-lift pedestrian lights, 3D structured light sensors, light detection and ranging sensors (LIDAR).
4.2.2 External Emitter Configuration:
220.127.116.11 Type of emitter(s).
18.104.22.168 Number of emitter(s).
4.2.3 External Emitter Source Location—Record emitter source location and elevation with respect to the vehicle (refer to ).
22.214.171.124 Elevation with respect to A-UGV path.
126.96.36.199 Location with respect to the A-UGV.
4.3.1 Temperature variability and extremes can affect the A-UGV performance. The temperature exposure on the A-UGV can be continuous or transitional while the vehicle is stationary or moving. Temperature ranges span from low to high extremes expressed in five categories. Temperature variations can affect onboard electronics, create condensation, cause hydraulic fluid viscosity, reduce battery life and recharge rate.
4.3.2 Temperature Exposure:
188.8.131.52 Continuous—A single temperature for a period of time.
184.108.40.206 Transitional—Moving between two continuous temperature levels.
4.3.3 Temperature Levels (in °C):
220.127.116.11 Level 1: below 0 to 0°C (for example, freezing conditions).
18.104.22.168 Level 2: 0 to 15°C (for example, perishable storage).
22.214.171.124 Level 3: 16 to 26°C (for example, office, warehouse).
126.96.36.199 Level 4: 27 to 49°C (for example, warehouse).
188.8.131.52 Level 5: above 49°C (for example, foundries, forges).
4.4.1 Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor contained in the air around the vehicle. High humidity combined with dew point temperature causes condensation that can short electronics and affect lenses and other A-UGV components. Greater than 60 % humidity causes a large increase in corrosion of metallic parts. Low humidity, on the other hand, will see a dramatic rise in static electricity and the need for adequate discharge.
4.4.2 Relative Humidity Level:
184.108.40.206 Low – less than 30 %.
220.127.116.11 Moderately Low – 31 to 55 %.
18.104.22.168 Moderately High – 56 to 75%.
22.214.171.124 High – greater than 75 % and above.
4.4.3 Dew Point Temperature—The highest temperature at which airborne water vapor will condense to form liquid dew.
4.5 Electrical Interference:
4.5.1 Some surfaces are not conductive enough to provide adequate grounding for an A-UGV. Most ground vehicles have a floating ground and all electronics are typically grounded to the vehicle chassis. As static builds up causing the voltage difference between the positive lead of the battery and the chassis to change, the performance of the electronic components of the vehicle may be negatively impacted. Strong magnetic fields can impact the onboard electrical components, in particular any data storage within the onboard computer. Many A-UGVs require wireless network connections for full functionality. Radio frequency (RF) interference can degrade these networks and A-UGV capability.
4.5.2 For Electro-magnetic compatibility issues, refer to:
126.96.36.199 EN 12895 Electromagnetic Compatibility – Emissions and Immunity.
188.8.131.52 MIL-STD-462 – EMI Emissions and Susceptibility.
184.108.40.206 IEC 61000-4-1 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-1: Testing and Measurement Techniques – Overview of Immunity Tests
220.127.116.11 IEC 61000-6 – Emission Standards for Industrial Environments
4.6 Ground Surface:
4.6.1 A-UGV mobility is affected by ground surface conditions including surface: consistency and texture/roughness, gaps or step changes to elevation, deformability, grade (ramp) or undulation (lack of flatness), friction and particulates.
4.6.2 Ground Surface Consistency:
18.104.22.168 Continuous—A single condition for a period of time.
22.214.171.124 Transitional—Moving between two continuous ground surface conditions.
4.6.3 Ground Surface Type (record ‘Smooth’ or ‘Rough’ and the surface type):
126.96.36.199 Smooth (for example, concrete, tile, linoleum, carpet).
188.8.131.52 Rough (for example, gapped wood, cobblestone, large gravel, vegetation, raised metal floors, catwalks).
4.6.4 Elevation Change:
184.108.40.206 Gap—Depth and length of gap.
220.127.116.11 Step—Height and length of step.
18.104.22.168 Rigid (for example, concrete, asphalt).
22.214.171.124 Semi-rigid (for example, compacted dirt or gravel, wet sand, industrial carpet).
126.96.36.199 Soft – malleable (for example, snow, mud, dry sand, padded carpet).
4.6.6 Grade (Ramp):
188.8.131.52 Level 1: 0 to 5 % (for example, transitional ramp in factories).
184.108.40.206 Level 2: 6 to 10 % (for example, yard ramp = 8 to 9 %).
220.127.116.11 Level 3: 11 to 15 % (for example, steep road grade).
18.104.22.168 Level 4: 16 % and above.
4.6.7 Undulation (Lack of Flatness):
22.214.171.124 Flat ground surface – 0 to 6 mm variation over 3 m.
126.96.36.199 Moderately flat ground surface – more than 6 to 12 mm variation over 3 m.
188.8.131.52 Non-flat ground surface – more than 13 to 51 mm variation over 3 m.
184.108.40.206 Outdoor – more than 51 mm variation over 3 m.
4.6.8 Coefficient of Friction:
220.127.116.11 High friction (for example, brushed concrete, asphalt).
18.104.22.168 Moderate friction (for example, polished/sealed concrete, steel plates, packed dirt).
22.214.171.124 Low friction (for example, icy, wet, lubricated, dry sand).
4.6.9 Ground Surface Particulates (record category and the type):
126.96.36.199 None (for example, dry, clean).
188.8.131.52 Fine (for example, cardboard dust, concrete dust).
184.108.40.206 Coarse (for example, sand, pebbles).
4.7 Air Quality:
4.7.1 Air quality refers to the ability that an A-UGV can discern an object or light in the presence of precipitation or air particulates, or both. Air quality can affect the A-UGV performance in terms of object detection, navigation, and docking. Air quality depends upon the size and volumetric density of particulates in the air. For relative comparison, the average human eye cannot see particulates smaller than 40 μm, fog from water vapor typically includes particle sizes from 5 to 50 μm, and dust particles are typically 0.1 to 100 μm. An ISO Class 1 cleanroom has no more than 10 particles larger than 0.1 μm in a cubic meter of air. Fog (water vapor) particle density of 1 amg allows human visibility of about 125 m at ground level. (See ISO 14644-1 and Footnote 6 for further information.) The sub-conditions and parameters for air quality include:
4.7.2 Visibility Continuity:
220.127.116.11 Continuous—A single condition for a period of time.
18.104.22.168 Transitional—Moving between two continuous air quality conditions.
4.7.3 Air Particle Density—Optionally, measure the air particle size and volumetric density.
22.214.171.124 Clear (for example, clean room, no visible air particulates).
126.96.36.199 Moderate (for example, visible fog, dust, light to moderate rain/snow/fog).
188.8.131.52 Dense (for example, dust storm, heavy snow/rain/fog).
4.7.4 Air Velocity/Direction—Refer to (a and b) for direction.
184.108.40.206 0 kph (0 mph) (for example, calm).
220.127.116.11 24 kph (15 mph) (for example, breezy).
18.104.22.168 40 kph (25 mph) (for example, windy).
22.214.171.124 68 kph (42 mph) (for example, gale).
126.96.36.199 116 kph (72 mph) or above (for example, hurricane).
1.1 This practice describes a means to record the following environmental conditions that may affect the performance of A-UGVs: lighting, external sensor emission, temperature, ground surface, air quality, humidity, and electrical interference.
1.2 The A-UGV operating ranges for each of the conditions listed in are described and parameterized in Section and allow a basis for performance comparison in test methods. The approach is to divide the list of environmental conditions into sub-conditions that represent the various aspects of the major category (for example, sunlight within ambient lighting). Where necessary, this practice also provides guidelines (for example, lighting direction) to record environmental conditions in an existing environment.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are not precise mathematical conversion to imperial units. They are close approximate equivalents for the purpose of specifying material dimensions or quantities that are readily available to avoid excessive fabrication costs of test apparatuses while maintaining repeatability and reproducibility of the test method results. These values given in parentheses are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
Other StandardsIEC 61000–6 ISO 14644-1 Cleanrooms and Associated Controlled EnvironmentsPart 1: Classification of Air Cleanliness by Particle Concentration Available from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO Central Secretariat, BIBC II, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401, 1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland, http://www.iso.org.
F3200 Terminology for Driverless Automatic Guided Industrial Vehicles
F3244 Test Method for Navigation: Defined Area
F3265 Test Method for Grid-Video Obstacle Measurement
ICS Number Code 35.240.60 (IT applications in transport); 43.020 (Road vehicles in general)
|Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)|
ASTM F3218-17, Standard Practice for Recording Environmental Effects for Utilization with A-UGV Test Methods, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.orgBack to Top