ASTM F2694 - 16

    Standard Practice for Functional and Wear Evaluation of Motion-Preserving Lumbar Total Facet Prostheses

    Active Standard ASTM F2694 | Developed by Subcommittee: F04.25

    Book of Standards Volume: 13.02

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Total Facet Prosthesis Components—The total facet replacement may comprise a variety of shapes and configurations. Its forms may include, but are not limited to, ball and socket articulating joints, joints having a free-floating or semi-constrained third body, metallic load-bearing surfaces, and spring and dampening mechanisms. Additionally, it may have a unilateral or bilateral design.

    5.2 Spinal Testing Apparatus: 

    5.2.1 Test Chambers—In case of a multispecimen machine, each chamber shall be isolated to prevent cross-contamination of the test specimens. The chamber shall be made entirely of corrosion-resistant materials, such as acrylic plastic or stainless steel, and shall be removable from the machine for thorough cleaning between tests.

    5.2.2 Component Clamping/Fixturing—Since the purpose of the test is to characterize the wear and kinematic function of the total facet prosthesis, the method for mounting components in the test chamber shall not compromise the accuracy of assessment of the weight loss or stiffness variation during the test. For example, prostheses having complicated superior and inferior surfaces for contacting bone (for example, sintered beads, hydroxylapatite (HA) coating, plasma spray) may be specially manufactured to modify that surface in a manner that does not affect the wear simulation.

    5.2.3 The device should be securely (rigidly) attached at its bone-implant interface to the mating test fixtures.

    5.2.4 The motion of the superior test fixture (more posterior fixture in Figs. 1 and 2) relative to the inferior testing fixture shall be constrained in three-dimensional space except for the components in the direction of specified test motions/loads.


    5.2.5 Load and Motion: Facet loads (fx) are initially applied in the direction of the positive X-axis. Flexion load and motion are positive moment and rotation about the Y-axis. Extension load and motion are negative moment and rotation about the Y-axis. Lateral bend load and motion are positive and negative moments and rotations about the X-axis. Axial rotation load and motion are positive and negative moments and rotations about the Z-axis.

    5.2.6 Frequency—Test frequency shall be determined and justified by the user of this practice, and shall not exceed 2 Hz without adequate justification ensuring that the applied motion (load) profiles remain within specified tolerances and that the total facet prosthesis’s wear and functional characteristics are not significantly affected. See X1.6.

    5.2.7 Cycle Counter—One complete motion is the entire range from starting position through the range of motion (or load when in load control) and returning to the starting position (load). Cycles are to be counted using an automated counting device.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice provides guidance for the functional, kinematic, and wear testing of motion-preserving total facet prostheses for the lumbar spine. These implants are intended to allow motion and lend support to the functional spinal unit(s) through replacement of the natural facets.

    1.2 This test method is not intended to address the bone implant interface or the static characteristics of the prosthesis components. Fatigue characteristics are included, but only as a by-product of cyclic wear testing under facet load and thus are not addressed in the typical process of generating a Stress-Life (S-N) characterization.

    1.3 Biocompatibility of the materials used in a total facet prosthesis are not addressed in this practice.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.4.1 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard with the exception of angular measurements, which may be reported in either degrees or radians.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    F561 Practice for Retrieval and Analysis of Medical Devices, and Associated Tissues and Fluids

    F732 Test Method for Wear Testing of Polymeric Materials Used in Total Joint Prostheses

    F1714 Guide for Gravimetric Wear Assessment of Prosthetic Hip Designs in Simulator Devices

    F1877 Practice for Characterization of Particles

    F2346 Test Methods for Static and Dynamic Characterization of Spinal Artificial Discs

    F2423 Guide for Functional, Kinematic, and Wear Assessment of Total Disc Prostheses

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 11.040.40 (Implants for surgery, prothetics and orthotics)

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/F2694-16

    Citation Format

    ASTM F2694-16, Standard Practice for Functional and Wear Evaluation of Motion-Preserving Lumbar Total Facet Prostheses, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016,

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