ASTM F2437 / F2437M - 17

    Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Cap Screws, Bolts, Anchors, and Studs

    Active Standard ASTM F2437 / F2437M | Developed by Subcommittee: F16.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 01.08


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    Abstract

    This specification covers the requirements for carbon and alloy steel compressible-washer-type direct tension indicators (DTIs) capable of indicating a specified bolt tension in cap screws, bolts, anchors, and studs. These DTIs are intended for installation under a bolt or cap screw head, a hex nut, or against a hardened washer or other flat hardened surface. The following are two types of DTIs: Type 1 DTIs are suitable for comparatively large bearing surfaces and Type 2 DTIs are suitable for comparatively smaller bearing surfaces. DTIs shall have a configuration produced by extrusion, punching, pressing, or similar forming to permit a measurable decrease in thickness when placed in compression. The design shall be such that the degree of plastic deformation of the protrusions shall indicate the tension in a tightened cap screw, bolt, anchor, or stud. The process used for heat treatment of DTIs, if required, shall be through-hardening by heating to a temperature above the upper transformation temperature, quenching in oil, and then tempering by reheating to a suitable temperature to attain desired mechanical/performance properties. Protective coatings, platings, or finishes may be applied on the DTIs if specified. Compression load and hardness of the DTIs shall be determined by performing mechanical tests.

    This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for carbon and alloy steel compressible-washer-type direct tension indicators (DTIs) capable of indicating a specified bolt tension in cap screws, bolts, anchors, and studs.

    1.2 Direct tension indicators in inch sizes 1/4 through 21/2 in. and metric sizes M6 and M72 are covered.

    1.3 Direct tension indicators have two styles and four grades for inch fasteners, Grades 5, 8, 55, and 105, and two property classes for metric fasteners, property classes 8.8 and 10.9 each of which differ in their compressive load requirements at a given gap (see Table 1 and Table 2).

    1.3.1 Style 1 DTIs are suitable for comparatively smaller bearing surfaces. Style 1 DTIs are available in Grades 5 and 8, which differ in the amount of tension they indicate at a prescribed gap (see Table 1 and Table 3).

    1.3.2 Style 2 DTIs are suitable for comparatively large bearing surfaces. Style 2 DTIs are available in Grades 55 and 105, which differ in the amount of tension they indicate at a prescribed gap (see Table 1 and Table 3).

    (A) Compression load requirements establish the capability of the direct tension indicators to satisfy typical tension requirements for these grades. The user is not obliged to install fasteners and DTIs to these tensions, and is free to specify installation to lower tension values. When so specified, the DTI supplier shall provide a load-gap curve in accordance with 15.2 to enable the user to select the appropriate gap criteria for the intended target tension of the application.
    (B) The Mean compression load values for Grades 5 and 8 in nominal sizes up through 1-1/2 in are based upon 75% of the proof load for SAE J429 cap screws. For Grade 5 in nominal sizes over 1-1/2 in and up to 2-1/2 in inclusive, the mean compression load values are based on 75% of the proof load for ASTM A449. For grade 8 in nominal sizes over 1-1/2 in and up to 2-1/2 in inclusive, mean compression load values are based upon 75 % of the proof load for ASTM A354BD.
    (C) Mean compression load values for Grades 55 and 105 are based upon 60 % of the yield strength for the matching fasteners on which they are used.
    (A) The Mean compression load values for property classes 8.8 and 10.9 are based upon 75% of the proof load for ISO 898-1 Bolts/Stud/Screws.
    (A) A Inch bolt and cap screw dimensions are designated in ASME B18.2.1 and metric bolt dimensions are designated in ISO 4014.
    (B) Inch nuts dimensions are designated in ASME B18.2.2 and metric nut dimensions are designated in ISO 4032.

    1.4 Direct tension indicators are intended for installation under a bolt or cap screw head, a hex nut, or against a hardened washer or other flat hardened surface.

    1.5 Recommended Fasteners—Fasteners meeting the requirements of the standards referenced in Table 3 are considered compatible with the DTI grade or class listed.

    1.6 The values stated for Inch DTIs are expressed in inch-pound units and for Metric DTIs values are expressed in SI units.The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.7 The following precautionary statement pertains only to the test method portions, Section 12of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A193/A193M Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications

    A194/A194M Specification for Carbon Steel, Alloy Steel, and Stainless Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both

    A307 Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts, Studs, and Threaded Rod 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength

    A354 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners

    A449 Specification for Hex Cap Screws, Bolts and Studs, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105/90 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, General Use

    A563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts

    B695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel

    F436/F436M Specification for Hardened Steel Washers Inch and Metric Dimensions

    F606/F606M Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets

    F1470 Practice for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection

    F1554 Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield Strength

    F1789 Terminology for F16 Mechanical Fasteners

    F1941/F1941M Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings on Mechanical Fasteners, Inch and Metric


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 21.060.01 (Fasteners in general)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/F2437_F2437M-17

    Citation Format

    ASTM F2437 / F2437M-17, Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Cap Screws, Bolts, Anchors, and Studs, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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