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    ASTM F109 - 21

    Standard Terminology Relating to Surface Imperfections on Ceramics

    Active Standard ASTM F109 | Developed by Subcommittee: C21.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.02


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    1. Scope

    1.1 This terminology describes and illustrates imperfections observed on whitewares and related products. For additional definitions of terms relating to whitewares and related products, refer to Terminology C242. To observe these defects, examination shall be performed visually, with or without the aid of a dye penetrant, as described in Test Method C949. Agreement by the manufacturer and the purchaser regarding specific techniques of observation is strongly recommended.

    1.2 This terminology does not cover every defect or imperfection possible for whitewares or related products. The standard is not intended to be an all inclusive document for ceramic imperfections. New defect types may be created as ceramic processes, materials, and technology evolve.

    1.3 Some of the imperfection photos utilize magnification for clarity in documentation. Unless otherwise noted, typical observation conditions for detection of tile imperfections/defects shall consist of current ANSI A137.1 viewing criteria for the specific defect type

    1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ANSI Standard

    ANSI A137.1

    ASTM Standards

    C242 Terminology of Ceramic Whitewares and Related Products

    C485 Test Method for Measuring Warpage of Ceramic Tile

    C949 Test Method for Porosity in Vitreous Whitewares by Dye Penetration

    E165/E165M Practice for Liquid Penetrant Testing for General Industry


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 01.040.81 (Glas and ceramics industries (Vocabularies)); 81.060.20 (Ceramic products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/F0109-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM F109-21, Standard Terminology Relating to Surface Imperfections on Ceramics, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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