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Significance and Use
5.1 Background subtraction techniques in AES were originally employed as a method of enhancement of the relatively weak Auger signals to distinguish them from the slowly varying background of secondary and backscattered electrons. Interest in obtaining useful information from the Auger peak line shape, concern for greater quantitative accuracy from Auger spectra, and improvements in data gathering techniques, have led to the development of various background subtraction techniques.
5.2 Similarly, the use of background subtraction techniques in XPS has evolved mainly from the interest in the determination of chemical states (from the binding-energy values for component peaks that may often overlap), greater quantitative accuracy from the XPS spectra, and improvements in data acquisition. Post-acquisition background subtraction is normally applied to XPS data.
5.3 The procedures outlined in Section are popular in XPS and AES; less popular procedures and rarely used procedures are described in Sections , respectively. General reviews of background subtraction methods and curve-fitting techniques have been published elsewhere (. )
5.4 Background subtraction is commonly performed prior to peak fitting, although it can be assessed (fitted) during peak fitting (active approach (). Some commercial data analysis packages require background removal before peak fitting. Nevertheless, a measured spectral region consisting of one or more peaks and background intensities due to inelastic scattering, Bremsstrahlung (for XPS with unmonochromated X-ray sources), and scattered primary electrons (for AES) can often be satisfactorily represented by applying peak functions for each component with parameters for each one determined in a single least-squares fit. The choice of the background to be removed, if required or desired, before or during peak fitting is suggested by the experience of the analysts, the capabilities of the peak fitting software, and the peak complexity as noted above. , )
1.1 The purpose of this guide is to familiarize the analyst with the principal background subtraction techniques presently in use together with the nature of their application to data acquisition and manipulation.
1.2 This guide is intended to apply to background subtraction in electron, X-ray, and ion-excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E673 Terminology Relating to Surface Analysis
ISO StandardISO 18115–1 Surface chemical analysisVocabularyPart 1: General terms and terms used in spectroscopy
ICS Number Code 17.180.30 (Optical measuring instruments)
UNSPSC Code 60104810(Spectroscopes)
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ASTM E995-16, Standard Guide for Background Subtraction Techniques in Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.orgBack to Top