ASTM E94 / E94M - 17

    Standard Guide for Radiographic Examination Using Industrial Radiographic Film

    Active Standard ASTM E94 / E94M | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.03


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Within the present state of the radiographic art, this guide is generally applicable to available materials, processes, and techniques where industrial radiographic films are used as the recording media.

    4.2 Limitations—This guide does not take into consideration the benefits and limitations of nonfilm radiography such as fluoroscopy, digital detector arrays, or computed radiography. Refer to Guides E1000, E2736, and E2007.

    4.3 Although reference is made to documents that may be used in the identification and grading, where applicable, of representative discontinuities in common metal castings and welds, no attempt has been made to set standards of acceptance for any material or production process.

    4.4 Radiography will be consistent in image quality (contrast sensitivity and definition) only if all details of techniques, such as geometry, film, filtration, viewing, etc., are obtained and maintained.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide2 covers satisfactory X-ray and gamma-ray radiographic examination as applied to industrial radiographic film recording. It includes statements about preferred practice without discussing the technical background which justifies the preference. A bibliography of several textbooks and standard documents of other societies is included for additional information on the subject.

    1.2 This guide covers types of materials to be examined; radiographic examination techniques and production methods; radiographic film selection, processing, viewing, and storage; maintenance of inspection records; and a list of available reference radiograph documents.

    Note 1: Further information is contained in Guide E999, Practice E1025, Test Methods E1030, and E1032.

    1.3 The use of digital radiography has expanded and follows many of the same general principles of film based radiography but with many important differences. The user is referred to standards for digital radiography [E2597, E2698, E2736, and E2737 for digital detector array (DDA) radiography and E2007, E2033, E2445/E2445M, and E2446 for computed radiography(CR)] if considering the use of digital radiography.

    1.4 Interpretation and Acceptance Standards—Interpretation and acceptance standards are not covered by this guide, beyond listing the available reference radiograph documents for castings and welds. Designation of accept - reject standards is recognized to be within the cognizance of product specifications and generally a matter of contractual agreement between producer and purchaser.

    1.5 Safety Practices—Problems of personnel protection against X rays and gamma rays are not covered by this document. For information on this important aspect of radiography, reference should be made to the current document of the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurement, Federal Register, U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, National Bureau of Standards, and to state and local regulations, if such exist. For specific radiation safety information refer to NIST Handbook ANSI 43.3, 21 CFR 1020.40, and 29 CFR 1910.1096 or state regulations for agreement states.

    1.6 Units—The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system should be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.7 If an NDT agency is used, the agency should be qualified in accordance with Specification E543.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (See 1.5.)

    1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing

    E746 Practice for Determining Relative Image Quality Response of Industrial Radiographic Imaging Systems

    E747 Practice for Design, Manufacture and Material Grouping Classification of Wire Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology

    E801 Practice for Controlling Quality of Radiographic Examination of Electronic Devices

    E999 Guide for Controlling the Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Processing

    E1000 Guide for Radioscopy

    E1025 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material Grouping Classification of Hole-Type Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology

    E1030 Practice for Radiographic Examination of Metallic Castings

    E1032 Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Weldments

    E1079 Practice for Calibration of Transmission Densitometers

    E1254 Guide for Storage of Radiographs and Unexposed Industrial Radiographic Films

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations

    E1390 Specification for Illuminators Used for Viewing Industrial Radiographs

    E1735 Test Method for Determining Relative Image Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Exposed to X-Radiation from 4 to 25 MeV

    E1742 Practice for Radiographic Examination

    E1815 Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography

    E1817 Practice for Controlling Quality of Radiological Examination by Using Representative Quality Indicators (RQIs)

    E2007 Guide for Computed Radiography

    E2033 Practice for Computed Radiology (Photostimulable Luminescence Method)

    E2445/E2445M Practice for Performance Evaluation and Long-Term Stability of Computed Radiography Systems

    E2446 Practice for Manufacturing Characterization of Computed Radiography Systems

    E2597 Practice for Manufacturing Characterization of Digital Detector Arrays

    E2698 Practice for Radiological Examination Using Digital Detector Arrays

    E2736 Guide for Digital Detector Array Radiology

    E2737 Practice for Digital Detector Array Performance Evaluation and Long-Term Stability


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.040.20 (Non-destructive testing of metals)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/E0094_E0094M-17

    Citation Format

    ASTM E94 / E94M-17, Standard Guide for Radiographic Examination Using Industrial Radiographic Film, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017, www.astm.org

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