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Significance and Use
5.1 Refer to Guide for the selection, irradiation, and quality control of neutron dosimeters.
5.2 Refer to Practice for a general discussion of the measurement of fast neutron fluence rate with threshold detectors. The general shape of the 63Cu(n,α) 60Co cross section is also shown in ( along with a comparison to the current experimental database , , )(. This figure is for illustrative purposes only to indicate the range of the response of the 63Cu(n,α)60Co reaction. Refer to Guide ) for descriptions of recommended tabulated dosimetry cross sections.
FIG. 1 63Cu(n,α)60Co Cross Section with EXFOR Experimental Data
Note 1: The cross section appropriate for use under this standard is from the IRDFF-II library () which, up to an incident neutron energy of 20 MeV, is drawn from the RRDF-2002 library () and is identical to the adopted cross section in the IRDF-2002 library (). See Guide .
5.3 The major advantages of copper for measuring fast-neutron fluence rate are that it has good strength, is easily fabricated, has excellent corrosion resistance, has a melting temperature of 1083°C, and can be obtained in high purity. The half-life of 60 Co is long and its decay scheme is simple and well known.
5.4 The disadvantages of copper for measuring fast neutron fluence rate are the high reaction apparent threshold of 4.5 MeV, the possible interference from cobalt impurity (>1 μg/g), the reported possible thermal component of the (n,α) reaction, and the possibly significant cross sections for thermal neutrons for 63Cu and 60Co [that is, 4.50(2) and 2.0(2) barns, respectively], (, which will require burnout corrections at high fluences. )
1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 63Cu(n,α) 60Co. The cross section for 60Co produced in this reaction increases rapidly with neutrons having energies greater than about 4.5 MeV. 60Co decays with a half-life of 5.2711(8) years (), and emits two gamma rays having energies of 1.173228(3) and 1.332492(4) MeV (. The isotopic content of natural copper is 69.174(20) % 63Cu and 30.826(20) % 65Cu )(. The neutron reaction, 63Cu(n,γ)64Cu, produces a radioactive product that emits gamma rays [1.34577(6) MeV ( ) )] which might interfere with the counting of the 60Co gamma rays.
1.2 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 109 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. The 63Cu(n,α)60Co reaction can be used to determine fast-neutron fluences for irradiation times up to about 15 years, provided that the analysis methods described in Practice are followed. If dosimeters are analyzed after irradiation periods longer than 15 years, the information inferred about the fluence during irradiation periods more than 15 years before the end of the irradiation should not be relied upon without supporting data from dosimeters withdrawn earlier.
1.3 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice .
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E170 Terminology Relating to Radiation Measurements and Dosimetry
E181 Test Methods for Detector Calibration and Analysis of Radionuclides
E261 Practice for Determining Neutron Fluence, Fluence Rate, and Spectra by Radioactivation Techniques
E844 Guide for Sensor Set Design and Irradiation for Reactor Surveillance
E944 Guide for Application of Neutron Spectrum Adjustment Methods in Reactor Surveillance
E1005 Test Method for Application and Analysis of Radiometric Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance
E1018 Guide for Application of ASTM Evaluated Cross Section Data File
ICS Number Code 17.240 (Radiation measurements); 27.120.30 (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology)
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ASTM E523-21e1, Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Copper, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.orgBack to Top