If you are an ASTM Compass Subscriber and this document is part of your subscription, you can access it for free at ASTM Compass
    ASTM E460 - 21

    Standard Practice for Determining Effect of Packaging on Food and Beverage Products During Storage

    Active Standard ASTM E460 | Developed by Subcommittee: E18.05

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.03


      Format Pages Price  
    PDF 3 $48.00   ADD TO CART
    Hardcopy (shipping and handling) 3 $48.00   ADD TO CART
    Standard + Redline PDF Bundle 6 $56.00   ADD TO CART



    Significance and Use

    4.1 This practice is designed to determine the effects of different packaging materials whether of construction or systems (overpack, inert atmosphere, etc.), or both. Different packaging materials may require different packaging systems and thus detectable differences may not be experimentally separable from these influences. The practice then, is limited to those situations where comparative results are meaningful. This practice should be used where experimental materials or alternate storage conditions are evaluated against a known control, for example, a soft drink in cans with experimental liners versus known liners, or potato sticks in plastic bags versus coated paper bags. Accepted industry standard packages, such as glass bottles and metal cans may also be used as controls.

    4.2 There are many ways in which a packaging material may influence a product during storage. First, the packaging material may contaminate the product with off-flavors/aromas by direct transfer of packaging component compounds to the product, commonly referred to as contribution or migration effect. Second, the packaging material may adsorb components from the product thus reducing flavor/aroma intensity of the product, commonly referred to as sorption or scalping effect. Third, external contaminants may permeate through the package and possibly be transferred into the product and/or compounds in the product may permeate out of the packaging, commonly referred to as permeation effect. (See Fig. 1.)

    FIG. 1 Packing and Product Interactions Chart

    Packing and Product Interactions ChartPacking and Product Interactions Chart

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice is designed to detect the changes in sensory attributes of foods and beverages stored in various packaging materials or systems, or both. It is not a practice intended to determine shelf-life.

    1.2 This practice may be used for testing a wide variety of materials in association with many kinds of products. There are many ways in which a packaging material may influence a product during storage. First, the packaging material may contaminate the product with off-flavors by direct transfer of packaging component compounds to the product. Second, the packaging material may adsorb components from the product which may then be further transferred to the atmosphere, thus reducing aroma intensity in the product. Third, external contaminants may permeate the package and possibly be transferred to the product. In addition to flavor influences, packaging materials may allow color or textural changes, or both, and many other measurable sensory effects.

    1.3 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    E1885 Test Method for Sensory AnalysisTriangle Test

    E2139 Test Method for Same-Different Test

    E2164 Test Method for Directional Difference Test


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 55.020 (Packaging and distibution of goods in general); 67.250 (Materials and articles in contact with foodstuff and water)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/E0460-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM E460-21, Standard Practice for Determining Effect of Packaging on Food and Beverage Products During Storage, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

    Back to Top