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    ASTM E3246 - 21

    Standard Test Methods for Differential Indentation Depth Hardness of Metallic Materials

    Active Standard ASTM E3246 | Developed by Subcommittee: E28.06

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.01


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 The Differential Indentation Depth hardness test is an empirical indentation hardness test that can provide useful information about metallic materials. This information can correlate to tensile strength, wear resistance, ductility, and other physical characteristics of metallic materials, and can be useful in quality control and selection of materials.

    4.2 Differential Indentation Depth hardness tests are considered satisfactory for acceptance testing of commercial shipments, and have been used in industry for this purpose.

    4.3 Differential Indentation Depth hardness testing at a specific location on a part might not represent the physical characteristics of the whole part or end product. Machines that comply with this Standard are used when machines that comply with the regular hardness standards such as Test Methods E10, E18, E92, and E384 cannot be used. Test results obtained with these machines are comparable BUT NOT EQUIVALENT to those obtained with machines that comply with the above mentioned standards.

    4.4 Differential Indentation Depth hardness testing machines covered by this standard do not comply with Test Methods E10, E18, E92, or E110.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the Differential Indentation Depth hardness of metallic materials by the Differential Indentation Depth hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Differential Indentation Depth hardness testing machines and the procedures for performing Differential Indentation Depth hardness tests.

    1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes:

    Verification of Differential Indentation Depth Hardness Testing Machines

    Annex A1

    Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece

    Annex A2

    1.3 This standard includes non-mandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Differential Indentation Depth hardness test.

    List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Numbers Corresponding to Tensile Strength

    Appendix X1

    Examples of Procedures for Determining Differential Indentation Depth Hardness Uncertainty

    Appendix X2

    Examples of Indenters Used in Differential Indentation Depth Machines

    Appendix X3

    1.4 Units—This standard specifies the units of force and length in the International System of Units (SI); that is, force in Newtons (N) and length in micrometers (µm). However, because of continued common usage, values are provided in other units of measure for information.

    1.5 The test principles, testing procedures, and verification procedures are essentially identical for all the Differential Indentation Depth hardness testing instruments. The testing instruments may use different test forces and indenter shapes. The type and size of the indenters are matched to the design of the instrument by the manufacturer. Accordingly, the indenters, probes and other instrument components are generally not interchangeable among manufacturers.

    1.6 The hardness number reported by these instruments are based on direct correlations to existing hardness scales as determined by each manufacturer for each instrument and hardness scale. Unless otherwise noted on the instrument or in the operating manual for the instrument, the hardness numbers reported by the instrument are only applicable to non-austenitic steels. See 5.6.1 for additional information.

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.8 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products

    B19 Specification for Cartridge Brass Sheet, Strip, Plate, Bar, and Disks

    B36/B36M Specification for Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, And Rolled Bar

    B96/B96M Specification for Copper-Silicon Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar for General Purposes and Pressure Vessels

    B103/B103M Specification for Phosphor Bronze Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B121/B121M Specification for Leaded Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B122/B122M Specification for Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloy (Nickel Silver), and Copper-Nickel Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B130 Specification for Commercial Bronze Strip for Bullet Jackets

    B134/B134M Specification for Brass Wire

    B152/B152M Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Rolled Bar

    B370 Specification for Copper Sheet and Strip for Building Construction

    E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing

    E10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials

    E18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E92 Test Methods for Vickers Hardness and Knoop Hardness of Metallic Materials

    E110 Test Method for Rockwell and Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers

    E140 Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness, and Leeb Hardness

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E384 Test Method for Microindentation Hardness of Materials

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    American Bearings Manufacturer Association Standard

    ABMA 10-1989

    ISO Standards

    ISO 18265 Metallic MaterialsConversion of Hardness Values Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/E3246-21

    Citation Format

    ASTM E3246-21, Standard Test Methods for Differential Indentation Depth Hardness of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2021, www.astm.org

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