ASTM E3163 - 18

    Standard Guide for Selection and Application of Analytical Methods and Procedures Used during Sediment Corrective Action

    Active Standard ASTM E3163 | Developed by Subcommittee: E50.04

    Book of Standards Volume: 11.05


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This guide should be used to support existing decision frameworks for the selection and application of analytical procedures to sediment programs.

    4.2 Activities described in this guide should be conducted by persons familiar with current sediment site characterization and remediation techniques, sediment remediation science and technology, toxicology concepts, risk and exposure assessment methodologies, and ecological evaluation protocols.

    4.3 This guide may be used by various parties involved in sediment programs, including regulatory agencies, project sponsors, environmental consultants, toxicologists, risk assessors, site remediation professionals, environmental contractors, analytical testing laboratories, data validators, data reviewers and users, and other stakeholders, which may include, but are not limited to, owners, buyers, developers, lenders, insurers, government agencies, and community members and groups.

    4.4 This guide is not intended to replace or supersede federal, state, local or international regulatory requirements. Instead this guide may be used to complement and support such requirements.

    4.5 This guide provides a decision framework based on over-arching features and elements that should be customized by the user based on site-specific conditions, regulatory context, and sediment program objectives for a particular site. This guide should not be used alone as a prescriptive checklist.

    4.6 The selection and application of analytical methods and test procedures for sediment programs is an evolving science. This guide provides a systematic but flexible decision framework to accommodate variations in approaches by regulatory agency and by user based on project objectives, site complexity, unique site features, programmatic and regulatory requirements, newly developed guidance, newly published scientific research, use of alternative scientifically-based methods and procedures, changes in regulatory criteria, advances in scientific knowledge and technical capability, multiple lines of evidence approach, and unforeseen circumstances.

    4.7 The user of this guide should review the overall structure and components of this guide before proceeding with use, including: Section 1 - Scope; Section 2 - References; Section 3 - Terminology; Section 4 - Significance and Use. The remainder of this guide is organized as a tool kit to support the selection and application of a range of test methods and procedures that may be used at various stages of a sediment program, including: Section 5 - Physical Property Test Methods; Section 6 - Chemistry Analytical Methods; Section 7 - Passive Sampling Methods; Section 8 - Biological Test Methods; Section 9 - Environmental Forensics Analytical Methods; and Section 10 - Analytical Methods Development. Nonmandatory Appendix X1 – Appendix X13 provide users of this guide with additional information. A list of References and a Bibliography are provided at the end of this guide.

    4.8 Project Scoping and Planning—This guide supports that systematic planning process for selection and application of analytical procedures used for sediment programs. The use of this guide compliments applicable existing guidance used to develop a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and to establish data quality objectives (DQO) necessary to meet project goals and to fully understand data quality. This process encourages planners to identify and focus on the key issues that must be addressed and resolved for successful, cost-effective, and defensible project outcomes.

    4.9 The use of this guide also supports the development and refinement of a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) as part of the planning process for site activities that involve gathering environmental data.

    4.10 Implementation of the guide is site-specific. The user of this guide may choose to customize the implementation of the guide for particular types and/or phases of sediment programs.

    4.11 This guide may be initiated at any time during a sediment program, including: site characterization, assessment, remedy selection, remedial design, remedial implementation, remedial operation and maintenance, baseline and long-term monitoring, remedy optimization, and corrective action.

    4.12 Use of this guide supports the use of systematic project planning, dynamic work strategies, use of innovative sampling and analytical technologies, and application of best management practices and guiding principles as applied to contaminated sediment programs.

    4.13 Use of this guide supports a multiple lines of evidence approach, including a weight of evidence approach, for assessment, remediation, and monitoring of contaminated sediments.

    4.14 Use of this guide is consistent with the Sediment-RBCA process which guides the user to acquire and evaluate additional data, obtain the appropriate data and refine goals, objectives, receptors, exposure pathways, and the site conceptual model. As the Sediment-RBCA process proceeds, data and conclusions reached at each tier help focus subsequent tiered evaluation. This integrative process results in efficient, cost-effective decision-making and timely, appropriate response actions for contaminated sediment programs.

    4.15 Planning Framework—When applying this guide, the user should undertake a systematic project planning and scoping process to collect information to assist in making site-specific, user-defined decisions for a particular project. Planning activities should include the following factors: (a) Assemble an experienced team of project professionals; (b) Engage stakeholders early and often in the planning process; (c) Define, agree on, and document clearly stated project objectives and intended outcomes; (d) Recognize that sediment programs are complex, uncertainty is high, that an appropriate projectspecific approach may be developed with the investment of time and effort, and that compromise and uncertainty are inherent in the process; (e) Identify the applicable regulatory program(s); (f) Compile existing site data; and (g) Establish a plan for documenting and reporting key decisions and results. These project planning and scoping activities should be carried forward as the project progresses.

    4.16 Experience and Expertise—The users of this guide should consider assembling a team of experienced project professionals with appropriate expertise to scope, plan and execute a sediment data acquisition program. The team may include: regulatory agencies, project sponsors, environmental consultants, toxicologists, risk assessors, site remediation professionals, environmental contractors, analytical testing laboratories, and data reviewers, data validators, data users, and other stakeholders.

    4.17 Stakeholders—The users of this guide are encouraged to engage key stakeholders early and often in the project planning and scoping process, especially regulators, project sponsors, and service providers including analytical testing laboratories. A concerted ongoing effort should be made by the guide user to continuously engage stakeholders as the project progresses in order to gain insight, technical support and input for resolving technical issues and challenges that may arise during project implementation.

    4.18 Documentation—The users of this guide should establish a plan for documenting and reporting the results of the project planning process, including: key challenges, options considered, decisions taken, data acquisition approach, data results, and project outcomes relative to project objectives. Project documentation may include: Project Work Plans, Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAP), Quality Assurance Project Plans (QAPP), Technical Memos, and Project Reports. The user must ensure that the test methods used meet the analytical rigor required by the regulatory agency or agencies having oversight authority for the project.

    4.19 The users of this guide are encouraged to continuously update and refine the project Conceptual Site Model (CSM), Work Plans and Reports used to describe the physical properties, chemical composition and occurrence, biologic features, and environmental conditions of the sediment project.

    4.20 Key Considerations—This guide supports users in the identification of key considerations for designing and implementing sediment program data acquisition plans, including discussion of applicability and use limitations of analytical methods and testing procedures.

    4.21 Challenges—This guide is designed to assist the user in more fully understanding and navigating the challenges inherent in the selection and application of analytical methods and test procedures for use in sediment programs, specifically challenges in generating analytical data of sufficient sensitivity to support the stringent regulatory screening levels applied to sediment programs. USEPA (2005a) (1)5 has long recognized the challenges associated with sediment programs, as summarized below:

    4.21.1 Sources may be various, large, ongoing, and/or difficult to control,

    4.21.2 Impacts may be diffuse, large, and diverse,

    4.21.3 Environment may be dynamic, increasing the difficulty in understanding effects of natural forces and man-made events on sediment movement and stability and contaminant fate and transport,

    4.21.4 Cleanup work often involves engineering challenges and higher costs than for other media,

    4.21.5 Mixed land uses and numerous property owners and communities with differing views, opinions, and impacts often complicate cleanup efforts, and

    4.21.6 Ecologically valuable resources and/or legislatively protected species or habitats may be present.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This is a guide for the selection and application of a range of analytical methods and testing procedures that may be used during sediment programs, including physical properties testing, chemical analytical methods, passive sampling procedures, bioassays and toxicity testing, environmental forensics methods and procedures, and methods development procedures for sediment programs.

    1.2 Sediment programs vary greatly in terms of environmental complexity, physical, chemical and biological characteristics, human health and ecological risk concerns, and geographic and regulatory context. This guide provides information for the selection and application of analytical methods and testing protocols applicable to a wide range of sediment programs.

    1.3 This guide describes widely accepted considerations and best practices used in the selection and application of analytical procedures used during sediment programs. This guide supports and complements existing regulations and technical guidance.

    1.4 This guide is designed for general application to a wide range of sediment programs performed under international, federal, state and local environmental programs. This guide describes the selection and application of analytical methods and test procedures, not the requirements for specific regulatory jurisdictions. This guide compliments but does not replace regulatory agency requirements.

    1.5 This guide may be used for a wide range of sediment programs, including programs with overlapping regulatory jurisdictions, programs without a clearly established regulatory framework, voluntary programs, Brownfield programs, and international programs. The users of this guide should be aware of the appropriate regulatory requirements that apply to sediment programs. The user should consult applicable regulatory agency requirements to identify appropriate technical decision criteria and seek regulatory approvals, as necessary, prior to selection and application of analytical methods and test procedures to sediment programs.

    1.6 This guide supports the collaboration of stakeholders, including project sponsors, regulators, laboratory service providers, and others, on the selection and application of analytical procedures to sediment programs. This guide highlights key considerations for designing sediment program data acquisition plans, including applicability and use limitations of analytical methods and test procedures, and data usability considerations. This guide recognizes the challenges inherent in selection and application of analytical methods and test procedures for sediment systems, as well as the challenges inherent in generating analytical data of sufficient sensitivity to meet regulatory criteria applied to sediment programs.

    1.7 ASTM standard guides are not regulations; they are consensus standard guides that may be followed voluntarily to support applicable regulatory requirements.

    1.8 Test methods, procedures, and guidelines published by ASTM, USEPA, and other U.S. and international agencies are used for sediment programs, many of which are referenced by this guide. However, these documents do not provide guidance on the selection and application of analytical methods and test procedures for sediment programs. This guide was developed for that purpose.

    1.9 This guide may be used in conjunction with other ASTM guides developed for sediment programs.

    1.10 The user of this guide should review existing information and data available for a sediment project to determine the most appropriate entry point into and use of this guide.

    1.11 Table of Contents: 

     

    Section

    Introduction

     

    Scope

    1

    Referenced Documents

    2

    Terminology

    3

    Significance and Use

    4

    Physical Property Test Methods

    5

    Chemistry Analytical Methods

    6

    Passive Sampling Methods

    7

    Biological Test Methods

    8

    Environmental Forensics Analytical Methods

    9

    Analytical Method Development

    10

    Key Differences in Physical Properties of Sediment and Soil

    Appendix X1

    Guidelines for Collection of Sediment Samples for Physical Properties Testing

    Appendix X2

    Key Concepts in Sediment Stratigraphy for Physical Properties Testing

    Appendix X3

    Quick Reference Guide for Sediment Chemistry Analytical Method Selection

    Appendix X4

    Sampling Reference Guide for Sediment Chemistry Analytical Methods

    Appendix X5

    Critical Success Factors for Sediment Chemistry Analytical Programs

    Appendix X6

    Quick Reference Guide for Passive Sampling Method Selection

    Appendix X7

    Advantages and Limitations of Passive Sampler Types for Organic Compounds

    Appendix X8

    Methodologies and Equations for Determining Aqueous Chemical Concentrations from Passive Sampler Results

    Appendix X9

    Pros and Cons Evaluation of Biological Test Methods

    Appendix X10

    Decision Tree for Biological Testing Selection

    Appendix X11

    Species List for Biological Testing

    Appendix X12

    Daubert Criteria to Guide the Selection and Application of Analytical Test Methods Used for Environmental Sediment Forensics

    Appendix X13

    References

     

    Bibliography

     

    1.12 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.13 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer

    D1498 Test Method for Oxidation-Reduction Potential of Water

    D1586 Test Method for Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass

    D2217 Practice for Wet Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants

    D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)

    D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures)

    D2937 Test Method for Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method

    D2974 Test Methods for Moisture, Ash, and Organic Matter of Peat and Other Organic Soils

    D3213 Practices for Handling, Storing, and Preparing Soft Intact Marine Soil

    D4220/D4220M Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil Samples

    D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils

    D4464 Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Catalytic Materials by Laser Light Scattering

    D4643 Test Method for Determination of Water Content of Soil and Rock by Microwave Oven Heating

    D5084 Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter

    D5739 Practice for Oil Spill Source Identification by Gas Chromatography and Positive Ion Electron Impact Low Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    D6169/D6169M Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations

    D6913/D6913M Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis

    D7263 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil Specimens

    D7363 Test Method for Determination of Parent and Alkyl Polycyclic Aromatics in Sediment Pore Water Using Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in Selected Ion Monitoring Mode

    D7928 Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis

    E1367 Test Method for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Estuarine and Marine Invertebrates

    E1391 Guide for Collection, Storage, Characterization, and Manipulation of Sediments for Toxicological Testing and for Selection of Samplers Used to Collect Benthic Invertebrates

    E1525 Guide for Designing Biological Tests with Sediments

    E1611 Guide for Conducting Sediment Toxicity Tests with Polychaetous Annelids

    E1688 Guide for Determination of the Bioaccumulation of Sediment-Associated Contaminants by Benthic Invertebrates

    E1689 Guide for Developing Conceptual Site Models for Contaminated Sites

    E1706 Test Method for Measuring the Toxicity of Sediment-Associated Contaminants with Freshwater Invertebrates

    E1850 Guide for Selection of Resident Species as Test Organisms for Aquatic and Sediment Toxicity Tests

    E2081 Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action

    E2122 Guide for Conducting In-situ Field Bioassays With Caged Bivalves

    E2205/E2205M Guide for Risk-Based Corrective Action for Protection of Ecological Resources

    API Document

    API RP40 Recommended Practices for Core Analysis, 1998


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.020.30 (Environmental impact assessment); 71.040.50 (Physicochemical methods of analysis)

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/E3163-18

    Citation Format

    ASTM E3163-18, Standard Guide for Selection and Application of Analytical Methods and Procedures Used during Sediment Corrective Action, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org

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