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Significance and Use
4.1 Graded reference images are intended to provide a guide enabling recognition of specific casting discontinuity types and relative severity levels that may be encountered during typical fabrication processes. Reference images containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. These reference images are intended as a basis from which manufacturers and purchasers may, by mutual agreement, select particular discontinuity classes to serve as standards representing minimum levels of acceptability (see Sections and ).
4.2 Reference images represented by this standard may be used, as agreed upon in a purchaser supplier agreement, for energy levels, thicknesses, or both outside the range of this standard when determined applicable for the casting service application.
4.3 Procedures for evaluation of production images using applicable reference images of this standard are prescribed in Section ; however, there may be manufacturing-purchaser issues involving specific casting service applications where it may be appropriate to modify or alter such requirements. Where such modifications may be appropriate for the casting application, all such changes shall be specifically called-out in the purchaser supplier agreement or contractual document. Section addresses purchaser supplier requisites for where weld repairs may be required.
4.4 Agreement should be reached between cognizant engineering organization and the supplier that the system used by the supplier is capable of detecting and classifying the required discontinuities.
1.1 These digital reference images illustrate various categories, types, and severity levels of discontinuities occurring in steel castings that have section thicknesses up to 2 in. (50.8 mm). The digital reference images are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International, if needed (see ). Categories and severity levels for each discontinuity type represented by these digital reference images are described in .
Note 1: The basis of application for these reference images requires a prior purchaser supplier agreement of radiographic examination attributes and acceptance criteria as described in Sections , , and of this standard.
1.2 These digital reference images consist of three separate volumes (see ) as follows: (I) medium voltage (nominal 250-kV) X rays, (II) 1-MV X rays and Iridium-192 radiation, and (III) 2-MV to 4-MV X rays and Cobalt-60 radiation. Unless otherwise specified in a purchaser supplier agreement (see ), each volume is for comparison only with production digital images produced with radiation energy levels within the thickness range covered by this standard. Each volume consists of six categories of graded discontinuities of increasing severity level and four categories of ungraded discontinuities. Reference images containing ungraded discontinuities are provided as a guide for recognition of a specific casting discontinuity type where severity levels are not needed. The following is a list of discontinuity categories, types, and severity levels for the adjunct digital reference images of this standard:
1.2.1 Category A – Gas porosity; severity levels 1 through 5.
1.2.2 Category B – Sand and slag inclusions; severity levels 1 through 5.
1.2.3 Category C – Shrinkage; 4 types:
18.104.22.168 Ca–linear shrinkage– Severity levels 1 through 5.
22.214.171.124 Cb–feathery shrinkage– Severity levels 1 through 5.
126.96.36.199 Cc–sponge shrinkage– Severity levels 1 through 5.
188.8.131.52 Cd–combinations of linear, feathery, and sponge shrinkage – Severity levels 1 through 5.
1.2.4 Category D–Crack; 1 illustration.
1.2.5 Category E–Hot Tear; 1 illustration.
1.2.6 Category F–Insert; 1 illustration.
1.2.7 Category G–Mottling; 1 illustration. (See .)
Note 2: The digital reference images consist of the following:
Volume I: Medium Voltage (nominal 250-kVp) X-Ray Reference Images – Set of 34 illustrations.
Volume II: 1-MV X Rays and Iridium-192 Reference Images – Set of 34 illustrations.
Volume III: 2-MV to 4-MV X Rays and Cobalt-60 Reference Images – Set of 34 illustrations.
Note 3: Although Category G – Mottling is listed for all three volumes, the appearance of mottling is dependent on the level of radiation energy. Mottling appears reasonably prominent in Volume I; however, because of the higher radiation energy levels mottling may not be apparent in Volume II nor Volume III.
1.3 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract.
1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in steel castings up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in thickness when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of steel castings up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in thickness, refer to Reference Radiographs .
1.5 Only licensed copies of the software and images shall be utilized for production inspection. A copy of the ASTM/User license agreement shall be kept on file for audit purposes. (See .)
Note 4: Each volume of digital reference images consists of 7 digital data files, software to load the desired format and specific instructions on the loading process. The 34 reference images in each volume illustrate six categories of graded discontinuities and four categories of ungraded discontinuities and contain an image of a step wedge. Available from ASTM International Headquarters, Order No: RRE286801 for Volume I, RRE286802 for Volume II, and RRE286803 for Volume III.
1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E2446 Practice for Classification of Computed Radiology Systems
E2597 Practice for Manufacturing Characterization of Digital Detector Arrays
SMPTE PracticeRP133 SMPTE
ICS Number Code 77.040.20 (Non-destructive testing of metals); 77.140.80 (Iron and steel castings)
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ASTM E2868-13e1, Standard Digital Reference Images for Steel Castings up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in Thickness, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, www.astm.orgBack to Top