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**Significance and Use**

5.1 The POD analysis method described herein is based on a well-known and well established statistical method. It shall be used to quantify the demonstrated POD for a specific set of examination parameters and known range of discontinuity sizes under the following conditions.

5.1.1 The initial response from a nondestructive evaluation inspection system is ultimately binary in nature (that is, hit or miss).

5.1.2 Discontinuity size is the predictor variable and can be accurately quantified.

5.1.3 A relationship between discontinuity size and POD exists and is best described by a generalized linear model with the appropriate link function for binary outcomes.

5.2 This practice does not limit the use of a generalized linear model with more than one predictor variable or other types of statistical models if justified as more appropriate for the hit/miss data.

5.3 If the initial response from a nondestructive evaluation inspection system is measurable and can be classified as a continuous variable (for example, data collected from an Eddy Current inspection system), then Practice E3023 may be more appropriate.

5.4 Prior to performing the analysis it is assumed that the discontinuity of interest is clearly defined; the number and distribution of induced discontinuity sizes in the POD specimen set is known and well-documented; discontinuities in the POD specimen set are unobstructed; and the POD examination administration procedure (including data collection method) is well-designed, well-defined, under control, and unbiased. The analysis results are only valid if convergence is achieved and the model adequately represents the data.

5.5 The POD analysis method described herein is consistent with the analysis method for binary data described in MIL-HDBK-1823A, and is included in several widely utilized POD software packages to perform a POD analysis on hit/miss data. It is also found in statistical software packages that have generalized linear modeling capability. This practice requires that the analyst has access to either POD software or other software with generalized linear modeling capability.

**1. Scope**

1.1 This practice defines the procedure for performing a statistical analysis on nondestructive testing hit/miss data to determine the demonstrated probability of detection (POD) for a specific set of examination parameters. Topics covered include the standard hit/miss POD curve formulation, validation techniques, and correct interpretation of results.

1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.3 *This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.*

1.4 *This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.*

**2. Referenced Documents** *(purchase separately)* The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

**ASTM Standards**

E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations

E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations

E2586 Practice for Calculating and Using Basic Statistics

E3023 Practice for Probability of Detection Analysis for Versus a Data

E3080 Practice for Regression Analysis

**Department of Defense Handbook**

**ICS Code**

ICS Number Code 03.120.30 (Application of statistical methods); 19.100 (Non-destructive testing)

**UNSPSC Code**

UNSPSC Code 81130000(Statistics)

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**DOI:** 10.1520/E2862-18

**Citation Format**

ASTM E2862-18, Standard Practice for Probability of Detection Analysis for Hit/Miss Data, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018, www.astm.org

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