ASTM E2751 / E2751M - 17a

    Standard Practice for Design and Performance of Supported Laminated Glass Walkways

    Active Standard ASTM E2751 / E2751M | Developed by Subcommittee: E06.52

    Book of Standards Volume: 04.12

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    Significance and Use

    4.1 Glass is a brittle material with different time and temperature-dependent properties than other solid materials used as walkways surfaces. Therefore, the type of glass is an important consideration in the design and construction of glass treads and glass landings constructed with laminated glass.

    4.2 Post-breakage glass retention is an important consideration in the design of a glass walkway system as a means of minimizing tripping, cutting/piercing injuries, or fall-through or fallout of the glass.

    4.3 The structural design shall be confirmed by calculations by a licensed design professional in accordance with Section 5.

    4.4 If testing is required (see 4.4.1 – 4.4.3) to verify post-glass breakage behavior of the glass walkway, the testing shall be in accordance with Section 6.

    4.4.1 For laminates with two glass plies, verification testing is required.

    4.4.2 For laminates with more than two glass plies, verification testing is not required provided that calculations completed in accordance with 4.3 demonstrate that the glass assembly has sufficient strength to sustain the full design load with any one glass ply broken.

    4.4.3 When verifying post-breakage behavior by calculation, allowable glass stress for 10 min load duration in accordance with Table 1 shall be used for all load cases.

    TABLE 1 Allowable Glass Stresses for Nominal Load Conditions

    Note 1: An allowable stress reduction factor of 0.5 is recommended for disruptive surface treatments, for example, sandblasting, unless otherwise provided by the manufacturer. A glass stress reduction factor may be required for some acid etched or patterned glasses; consult the manufacturer.

    Note 2: Values derived from Practice E1300, Table X9.1 (seamed edges), factored for load duration using Practice E1300, Equation X7.1, using n = 16 for annealed glass, n = 32 for heat strengthened glass, and n = 48 for tempered glass.

    Glass Type

    MPa [psi]

    MPa [psi]

    MPa [psi]

    MPa [psi]


    18.3 [2650]

    13.2 [1902]

    11.7 [1701]

    5.7 [827]


    36.5 [5300]

    30.9 [4482]

    29.2 [4235]

    20.3 [2944]


    73.0 [10 600]

    65.3 [9471]

    63.0 [9137]

    49.4 [7165]

    4.5 The manufacturer or designer of glass walkway systems shall provide installation directions and fabrication and installation tolerances of their systems.

    4.6 The structural integrity of the glass walkway system after glass breakage shall be sufficient to support the design loads after any one glass ply is broken. If damage of any kind occurs, the walkway shall be cordoned off and the installation shall be inspected to ensure structural integrity and pedestrian safety of the system.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice addresses elements related to load-bearing glass walkways, glass treads, and glass landings constructed with laminated glass. This standard includes performance, design, and safe behavior considerations. It addresses the characteristics unique to glass and laminated glass. Issues that are common to all walkways, such as slip resistance, are addressed in existing referenced standards.

    1.2 This practice does not address glass walkways constructed with monolithic glass, glass block, insulating glass units, glass tiles that are directly bonded to a non-glass structural substrate, or glass walkways intended to support vehicular traffic.

    1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.5 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C1036 Specification for Flat Glass

    C1048 Specification for Heat-Strengthened and Fully Tempered Flat Glass

    C1172 Specification for Laminated Architectural Flat Glass

    E631 Terminology of Building Constructions

    E1300 Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings

    F1637 Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces

    F2508 Practice for Validation, Calibration, and Certification of Walkway Tribometers Using Reference Surfaces

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 81.040.20 (Glass in building)

    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/E2751_E2751M-17A

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2751 / E2751M-17a, Standard Practice for Design and Performance of Supported Laminated Glass Walkways, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017,

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