ASTM E2700 - 14

    Standard Practice for Contact Ultrasonic Testing of Welds Using Phased Arrays

    Active Standard ASTM E2700 | Developed by Subcommittee: E07.06

    Book of Standards Volume: 03.04

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 Industrial phased arrays differ from conventional monocrystal ultrasonic transducers since they permit the electronic control of ultrasound beams. The arrays consist of a series of individual transducer elements, each separately wired, time-delayed and electrically isolated; the arrays are typically pulsed in groups to permit “phasing,” or constructive-destructive interference.

    5.2 Though primarily a method of generating and receiving ultrasound, phased arrays are also a method of scanning and imaging. While some scan patterns emulate manual technology, other scans (for example, S-scans) are unique to phased arrays. With their distinct features and capabilities, phased arrays require special set-ups and standardization, as addressed by this practice. Commercial software permits the operator to easily make set ups without detailed knowledge of the phasing requirements.

    5.3 Phased arrays can be used in different ways: manual or encoded linear scanning; and different displays or combinations of displays. In manual scanning, the dominant display will be an S-scan with associated A-scans. S-scans have the advantage over E-scans that all the specified inspection angles can be covered at the same time.

    5.4 The main advantages of using phased arrays for ultrasonic weld examinations are:

    5.4.1 Faster scanning due to multiple angles on display at the same time,

    5.4.2 Better imaging from the true depth S-scan,

    5.4.3 Data storage, for example, selected reflectors, for auditing, and archiving.

    5.4.4 Rapid and reproducible set-ups with electronic instruments.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice describes ultrasonic techniques for inspecting welds using phased array ultrasonic methods (see Note 1).

    1.2 This practice uses angle beams, either in S-scan or E-scan modes, primarily for butt welds and Tee welds. Alternative welding techniques, such as solid state bonding (for example, friction stir welding) and fusion welding (for example, electron beam welding) can be inspected using this practice provided adequate coverage and techniques are documented and approved. Practices for specific geometries such as spot welds are not included. The practice is intended to be used on thicknesses of 9 to 200 mm (0.375 to 8 in.). Greater and lesser thicknesses may be tested using this standard practice if the technique can be demonstrated to provide adequate detection on mockups of the same wall thickness and geometry.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

    Note 1: This practice is based on experience with ferrous and aluminum alloys. Other metallic materials can be examined using this practice provided reference standards can be developed that demonstrate that the particular material and weld can be successfully penetrated by an ultrasonic beam.

    Note 2: For additional pertinent information, see Practices E2491, E317, and E587.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASNT Documents

    ANSI/ASNT CP-189 Standard for Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel

    SNT-TC-1A Recommended Practice for Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing

    AIA Standard

    NAS-410 Certification and Qualification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel

    ASTM Standards

    E164 Practice for Contact Ultrasonic Testing of Weldments

    E317 Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Testing Instruments and Systems without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments

    E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing

    E587 Practice for Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Contact Testing

    E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations

    E2192 Guide for Planar Flaw Height Sizing by Ultrasonics

    E2491 Guide for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Phased-Array Ultrasonic Testing Instruments and Systems

    ASME Standard

    ASME B and PV Code Section V, Article 4

    ISO Standards

    ISO 2400 Reference Block for the Calibration of Equipment for Ultrasonic Examination

    ISO 9712 Nondestructive Testing--Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 25.160.40 (Welding joints and welds)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 41111800(Non destructive examination equipment)

    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
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    DOI: 10.1520/E2700-14

    Citation Format

    ASTM E2700-14, Standard Practice for Contact Ultrasonic Testing of Welds Using Phased Arrays, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014,

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