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Significance and Use
5.1 Radiographic examination may be used during product and process design optimization, on line process control, after manufacture inspection, and in service inspection. In addition to verifying structural placement, radiographic examination can be used in the case of honeycomb core materials to detect node bonds, core-to-core splices, and core-to-structure splices. Radiographic examination is especially well suited for detecting sub-surface flaws. The general types of defects detected by radiographic examination include blown core, core corrosion, damaged filaments, density variation, entrapped fluid, fiber debonding, fiber misalignment, foreign material, fractures, inclusions, micro-cracks, node bond failure, porosity/voids, and thickness variation.
5.2 Factors that influence image formation and X-ray attenuation in radiographic examination, and which are relevant to interpreting the images for the conditions of interest, should be included in the examination request. Examples include, but not limited to, the following: laminate (matrix and fiber) material, lay-up geometry, fiber volume fraction (flat panels); facing material, core material, facing stack sequence, core geometry (cell size); core density, facing void content, adhesive void content, and facing volume percent reinforcement (sandwich core materials); overall thickness, specimen alignment, and specimen geometry relative to the beam (flat panels and sandwich core materials).
5.3 Information regarding discontinuities that are detectable using radiographic examination methods can be found in Guide .
1.1 This practice is intended to be used as a supplement to Practices , , , and .
1.2 This practice describes procedures for radiographic examination of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials made entirely or in part from fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites. Radiographic examination is: a) Film Radiography (RT), b) Computed Radiography (CR) with Imaging Plate, c) Digital Radiography (DR) with Digital Detector Array’s (DDA), and d) Radioscopic (RTR) Real Time Radiography with a detection system such as an Image Intensifier. The composite materials under consideration typically contain continuous high modulus fibers (> 20 GPa), such as those listed in .
1.3 This practice describes established radiographic examination methods that are currently used by industry that have demonstrated utility in quality assurance of flat panel composites and sandwich core materials during product process design and optimization, process control, after manufacture inspection, in service examination, and health monitoring. Additional guidance can be found in , Guide for Nondestructive Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Aerospace.
1.4 This practice has utility for examination of flat panel composites and sandwich constructions containing, but not limited to, bismaleimide, epoxy, phenolic, poly(amide imide), polybenzimidazole, polyester (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(ether ether ketone), poly(ether imide), polyimide (thermosetting and thermoplastic), poly(phenylene sulfide), or polysulfone matrices; and alumina, aramid, boron, carbon, glass, quartz, or silicon carbide fibers. Typical as-fabricated geometries include uniaxial, cross ply and angle ply laminates; as well as honeycomb core sandwich constructions.
1.5 This practice does not specify accept-reject criteria and is not intended to be used as a means for approving flat panel composites or sandwich core materials for service.
1.6 To ensure proper use of the referenced standards, there are recognized nondestructive testing (NDT) specialists that are certified according to industry and company NDT specifications. It is recommended that a NDT specialist be a part of any composite component design, quality assurance, in service maintenance or damage examination.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C274 Terminology of Structural Sandwich Constructions
D1434 Test Method for Determining Gas Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film and Sheeting
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
E94 Guide for Radiographic Examination
E543 Specification for Agencies Performing Nondestructive Testing
E747 Practice for Design, Manufacture and Material Grouping Classification of Wire Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology
E1000 Guide for Radioscopy
E1025 Practice for Design, Manufacture, and Material Grouping Classification of Hole-Type Image Quality Indicators (IQI) Used for Radiology
E1165 Test Method for Measurement of Focal Spots of Industrial X-Ray Tubes by Pinhole Imaging
E1255 Practice for Radioscopy
E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
E1316 Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations
E1471 Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases
E1742 Practice for Radiographic Examination
E1815 Test Method for Classification of Film Systems for Industrial Radiography
E1817 Practice for Controlling Quality of Radiological Examination by Using Representative Quality Indicators (RQIs)
E2007 Guide for Computed Radiography
E2033 Practice for Computed Radiology (Photostimulable Luminescence Method)
E2445 Practice for Performance Evaluation and Long-Term Stability of Computed Radiography Systems
E2446 Practice for Classification of Computed Radiology Systems
E2533 Guide for Nondestructive Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Aerospace Applications
E2597 Practice for Manufacturing Characterization of Digital Detector Arrays
E2698 Practice for Radiological Examination Using Digital Detector Arrays
E2736 Guide for Digital Detector Array Radiology
E2737 Practice for Digital Detector Array Performance Evaluation and Long-Term Stability
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP) DocumentsNCRP 116 Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation NCRP 144 Radiation Protection for Particle Accelerator Facilities NCRP 49 Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Medical Use of X-Rays and Gamma Rays of Energies up to 10 MeV
ICS Number Code 49.035 (Components for aerospace construction)
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ASTM E2662-15, Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination of Flat Panel Composites and Sandwich Core Materials Used in Aerospace Applications, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, www.astm.orgBack to Top